电话:
+1 877 302 8632
传真:
+1 888 205 9894 (Toll-free)
电子邮件:
orders@antibodies-online.cn

MAPK Pathway

磷酸化是指把磷酸基团添加到分子特异氨基酸残基上的可逆过程。从功能上看,磷酸化充当的是一个能够激活、灭活或或调节蛋白功能的简单分子开关。添加和去除磷酸基团实现了对蛋白活性空间和时间上的控制。磷酸化受到一个激酶与磷酸化酶相互竞争而又相互依存的网络的严格控制,其中激酶为底物蛋白质提供磷酸基团,而磷酸化酶则会把它们从底物中移除。

丝裂原活化蛋白激酶 (MAPKs) 是一个高度保守而又广泛表达的、能够磷酸化许多不同靶底物的酶激酶家族。MAP-激酶则是一个更大的分层磷酸化级联反应的组成部分,该级联反应包括MAP2Ks和MAP3Ks。这种分层组织可以实现灵活性,从而通过激活MAP-激酶一个直接与其他功能蛋白相互作用的较小子集,使一系列的高阶激酶能够对刺激做出响应并控制细胞功能。

MAP-激酶几乎在所有细胞过程中都发挥着重要作用。MAPK依赖性磷酸化涉及调节细胞周期进程、分化、发育和凋亡的信号传导级联反应。

补充阅读:皮尔逊·G、罗宾逊·F、比尔斯·吉布森·T、Xu BE、克兰迪卡·M、伯曼·K、科布·MH (2001年4月)。《丝裂原活化蛋白(MAP) 激酶通路:调节和生理功能》。《内分泌学学报》版本22 (2): 153–83。 doi:10.1210/er.22.2.153. PMID 11294822

MAPK

MAPK14 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. This kinase is activated by various environmental stresses and proinflammatory cytokines. The activation requires...   更多...

MAPK1 - ERK2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. The activation of this kinase requires its...   更多...

MAPK10 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 10):

MAPK11 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 11):

MAPK4 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 4):

MAPK7 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 7):

MAP2K

MAP2K1 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 1):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the dual specificity protein kinase family, which acts as a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals. This protein kinase lies upstream of MAP kinases and stimulates the enzymatic activity of MAP kinases upon...   更多...

MAP2K2 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 2):

The protein encoded by this gene is a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase family. This kinase is known to play a critical role in mitogen growth factor signal transduction. It phosphorylates and thus activates MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK2/ERK3. The activation of this kinase itself is dependent on the Ser/Thr phosphorylation by MAP kinase kinase kinases. Mutations in...   更多...

MAP3K

MAP3K1 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 1):

The protein encoded by this gene is a serine/threonine kinase and is part of some signal transduction cascades, including the ERK and JNK kinase pathways as well as the NF-kappa-B pathway. The encoded protein is activated by autophosphorylation and requires magnesium as a cofactor in phosphorylating other proteins. This protein has E3 ligase activity conferred by a plant homeodomain (PHD) in...   更多...

MAP3K11 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 11):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine kinase family. This kinase contains a SH3 domain and a leucine zipper-basic motif. This kinase preferentially activates MAPK8/JNK kinase, and functions as a positive regulator of JNK signaling pathway. This kinase can directly phosphorylate, and activates IkappaB kinase alpha and beta, and is found to be involved in the...   更多...

MAP3K12 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 12):

MAP3K2 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 2):

MAP3K3 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 3):

MAP3K4 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 4):

RAF

ARAF (V-Raf Murine Sarcoma 3611 Viral Oncogene Homolog):

This proto-oncogene belongs to the RAF subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family, and maybe involved in cell growth and development. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012].   更多...

BRAF (B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase):

This gene encodes a protein belonging to the raf/mil family of serine/threonine protein kinases. This protein plays a role in regulating the MAP kinase/ERKs signaling pathway, which affects cell division, differentiation, and secretion. Mutations in this gene are associated with cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, a disease characterized by heart defects, mental retardation and a distinctive facial...   更多...

RAS

NRAS - GTPase NRas

This is an N-ras oncogene encoding a membrane protein that shuttles between the Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane. This shuttling is regulated through palmitoylation and depalmitoylation by the ZDHHC9-GOLGA7 complex. The encoded protein, which has intrinsic GTPase activity, is activated by a guanine nucleotide-exchange factor and inactivated by a GTPase activating protein. Mutations in...   更多...

HRAS (HRas proto-oncogene, GTPase):

This gene belongs to the Ras oncogene family, whose members are related to the transforming genes of mammalian sarcoma retroviruses. The products encoded by these genes function in signal transduction pathways. These proteins can bind GTP and GDP, and they have intrinsic GTPase activity. This protein undergoes a continuous cycle of de- and re-palmitoylation, which regulates its rapid exchange...   更多...

Activators

CDC42 (Cell Division Cycle 42 (GTP Binding Protein, 25kDa)):

The protein encoded by this gene is a small GTPase of the Rho-subfamily, which regulates signaling pathways that control diverse cellular functions including cell morphology, migration, endocytosis and cell cycle progression. This protein is highly similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc 42, and is able to complement the yeast cdc42-1 mutant. The product of oncogene Dbl was reported to...   更多...

PAK1 (P21-Activated Kinase 1):

This gene encodes a family member of serine/threonine p21-activating kinases, known as PAK proteins. These proteins are critical effectors that link RhoGTPases to cytoskeleton reorganization and nuclear signaling, and they serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins Cdc42 and Rac. This specific family member regulates cell motility and morphology. Alternatively spliced transcript...   更多...

MAP4K3 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 3):

Targets

ATF2 (Activating Transcription Factor 2):

This gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA binding proteins. This protein binds to the cAMP-responsive element (CRE), an octameric palindrome. It forms a homodimer or a heterodimer with c-Jun and stimulates CRE-dependent transcription. This protein is also a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that specifically acetylates histones H2B and H4 in...   更多...

BCL2 (B-Cell CLL/lymphoma 2):

This gene encodes an integral outer mitochondrial membrane protein that blocks the apoptotic death of some cells such as lymphocytes. Constitutive expression of BCL2, such as in the case of translocation of BCL2 to Ig heavy chain locus, is thought to be the cause of follicular lymphoma. Two transcript variants, produced by alternate splicing, differ in their C-terminal ends. [provided by...   更多...

BAD (BCL2-Associated Agonist of Cell Death):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the BCL-2 family. BCL-2 family members are known to be regulators of programmed cell death. This protein positively regulates cell apoptosis by forming heterodimers with BCL-xL and BCL-2, and reversing their death repressor activity. Proapoptotic activity of this protein is regulated through its phosphorylation. Protein kinases AKT and MAP kinase,...   更多...

BTG2 (BTG Family, Member 2):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the BTG/Tob family. This family has structurally related proteins that appear to have antiproliferative properties. This encoded protein is involved in the regulation of the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008].   更多...

CANX - Calnexin

This gene encodes a member of the calnexin family of molecular chaperones. The encoded protein is a calcium-binding, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein that interacts transiently with newly synthesized N-linked glycoproteins, facilitating protein folding and assembly. It may also play a central role in the quality control of protein folding by retaining incorrectly folded protein...   更多...

CASP9 - Caspase 9

This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. This protein is processed...   更多...

EIF4EBP1 (Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E Binding Protein 1):

MKNK2 (MAP Kinase Interacting serine/threonine Kinase 2):

RPS6KA2 (Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase, 90kDa, Polypeptide 2):

RPS6KA6 (Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase, 90kDa, Polypeptide 6):

You are here: