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Human Leukocyte Antigen

The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) comprises a number of genes that occur in many species. The encoded proteins help the adaptive immune system to tell the body's own proteins apart from those of pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and protozoans. In humans, MHC proteins are encoded by the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA), a group of more than 200 genes located closely together on the short arm of chromosome 6.

Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) - antibodies-online.com

Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) on human chromosome VI (right and middle). Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I complexes ar heterodimers of a polymorphic α chain and an invariant β2 microglobulin chain. The α chain subdomains form a groove where peptides are bound and presented to CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. Similarly, the heterodimerc MHC II class complexes present peptides to to CD4+ helper T cells.

MHC class I complexes are heterodimers consisting of a polymorphic α heavy chain and an invariant β2 microglobulin chain (β2m). Genes encoding the α heavy chain are situated within the MHC class I locus whereas the β2 microtubulin genes are typically found outside of this region. The α heavy chain is structurally separated into three N-terminal extracellular domain, α1, α2, and α3, a transmembrane domain, and a short C-terminal cytoplasmic region. Domains α1 and α2 form the peptide-binding groove where peptides from endogenously synthesized proteins are presented to CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. Covalently linked β2m serves as a conformational chaperone enabling peptide binding.

antibodies-online offers high quality recombinant class I HLA proteins and corresponding antibodies. Our HLAs are produced in mammalian cell cultures as recombinant, truncated, soluble proteins, in complex with β2m.

Our Popular HLA Class I Antibodies

Product
Reactivity
Clone
Application
Cat. No.
Quantity
Validations
Datasheet
Reactivity Baboon, Cynomolgus, Human, Rhesus Monkey
Clone W6-32
Application FACS
Cat. No. ABIN5067844
Quantity 100 μg
Validations
  • (1)
Datasheet Datasheet
Reactivity Human, Pig
Clone NKI(SPV)L3
Application FACS, IHC (fro), IP
Cat. No. ABIN1042461
Quantity 0.1 mg
Validations
  • (1)
Datasheet Datasheet
Reactivity Baboon, Cat, Chimpanzee, Cow, Human, Macaque, Monkey, Primate
Clone W6-32
Application FACS, IP, IHC (fro), IF, Func, EIA, DNA Mic
Cat. No. ABIN118899
Quantity 0.5 mg
Validations
  • (4)
  • (2)
Datasheet Datasheet
Reactivity Human
Clone CATA-1
Application FACS, IF, IHC (f)
Cat. No. ABIN6152731
Quantity 100 μL
Validations
Datasheet Datasheet

Our Popular HLA Class I Proteins

Product
Source
Application
Cat. No.
Quantity
Delivery
Datasheet
Source Mammalian Cells
Application BP, CP, ELISA, Neut
Cat. No. ABIN7273184
Quantity 100 μL
Delivery 35至42个工作日
Datasheet Datasheet
Source Mammalian Cells
Application BP, CP, ELISA, Neut
Cat. No. ABIN7273166
Quantity 100 μL
Delivery 35至42个工作日
Datasheet Datasheet
Source Mammalian Cells
Application BP, CP, ELISA, Neut
Cat. No. ABIN7273165
Quantity 100 μL
Delivery 35至42个工作日
Datasheet Datasheet
Source Mammalian Cells
Application BP, CP, ELISA, Neut
Cat. No. ABIN7273164
Quantity 100 μL
Delivery 35至42个工作日
Datasheet Datasheet
Source Mammalian Cells
Application BP, CP, ELISA, Neut
Cat. No. ABIN7273161
Quantity 100 μL
Delivery 35至42个工作日
Datasheet Datasheet
Source Mammalian Cells
Application BP, CP, ELISA, Neut
Cat. No. ABIN7273225
Quantity 100 μL
Delivery 35至42个工作日
Datasheet Datasheet
Source Mammalian Cells
Application BP, CP, ELISA, Neut
Cat. No. ABIN7273224
Quantity 100 μL
Delivery 35至42个工作日
Datasheet Datasheet
Source Mammalian Cells
Application BP, CP, ELISA, Neut
Cat. No. ABIN7273195
Quantity 100 μL
Delivery 35至42个工作日
Datasheet Datasheet
Source Mammalian Cells
Application BP, CP, ELISA, Neut
Cat. No. ABIN7273193
Quantity 100 μL
Delivery 35至42个工作日
Datasheet Datasheet
Source Mammalian Cells
Application BP, CP, ELISA, Neut
Cat. No. ABIN7273192
Quantity 100 μL
Delivery 35至42个工作日
Datasheet Datasheet

MHC class II complexes are heterodimers consisting of two polymorphic chains, α and β, each with two domains. The corresponding genes for both subunits are situated within the MHC class II locus. The peptide-binding groove in MHC class II complexes is formed by domains α1 and β1 and peptides are derived from exogenous proteins and presented to CD4+ helper T cells. Upon binding of the epitope by naïve helper T cells, they are primed and undergo polarization into effector or memory Th or Treg cells.

antibodies-online offers high quality recombinant class II HLA proteins. Our HLAs are produced in mammalian cell cultures as recombinant, truncated, soluble antigens, as zipper-stabilized heterodimers.

Our Popular HLA Class II Antibodies

Product
Reactivity
Clone
Application
Cat. No.
Quantity
Validations
Datasheet
Reactivity Human
Clone CR3-43
Application FACS, IF, WB, IHC, Coat, ELISA, StM
Cat. No. ABIN6939629
Quantity 100 μg
Validations
  • (7)
Datasheet Datasheet
Reactivity Human
Clone IVA12
Application FACS
Cat. No. ABIN5067814
Quantity 100 μg
Validations
  • (2)
Datasheet Datasheet
Reactivity Human, Pig
Clone NKI(SPV)L3
Application FACS, IHC (fro), IP
Cat. No. ABIN1042461
Quantity 0.1 mg
Validations
  • (1)
Datasheet Datasheet
Reactivity Dog, Human, Non-Human Primate
Clone L243
Application FACS, WB, IP, IHC (p), IHC (fro), ICC, Func
Cat. No. ABIN2749036
Quantity 0.1 mg
Validations
  • (5)
Datasheet Datasheet

Our Popular HLA Class II Proteins

Product
Source
Application
Cat. No.
Quantity
Delivery
Datasheet
Source Mammalian Cells
Application BP, CP, ELISA, Neut
Cat. No. ABIN7273278
Quantity 100 μL
Delivery 35至42个工作日
Datasheet Datasheet
Source Mammalian Cells
Application BP, CP, ELISA, Neut
Cat. No. ABIN7273275
Quantity 100 μL
Delivery 35至42个工作日
Datasheet Datasheet
Source Mammalian Cells
Application BP, CP, ELISA, Neut
Cat. No. ABIN7273265
Quantity 100 μL
Delivery 35至42个工作日
Datasheet Datasheet
Source Mammalian Cells
Application BP, CP, ELISA, Neut
Cat. No. ABIN7273252
Quantity 100 μL
Delivery 35至42个工作日
Datasheet Datasheet
Source Mammalian Cells
Application BP, CP, ELISA, Neut
Cat. No. ABIN7273234
Quantity 100 μL
Delivery 35至42个工作日
Datasheet Datasheet
Source Mammalian Cells
Application BP, CP, ELISA, Neut
Cat. No. ABIN7273304
Quantity 100 μL
Delivery 35至42个工作日
Datasheet Datasheet
Source Mammalian Cells
Application BP, CP, ELISA, Neut
Cat. No. ABIN7273299
Quantity 100 μL
Delivery 35至42个工作日
Datasheet Datasheet
Source Mammalian Cells
Application BP, CP, ELISA, Neut
Cat. No. ABIN7273298
Quantity 100 μL
Delivery 35至42个工作日
Datasheet Datasheet

A third cluster of HLAs (MHC class III) between the class I and class II MHC genes encodes components of the complements system and is not involved in the adaptive immune response.

HLA Nomenclature

Each HLA allele has a unique name consisting of the gene name, separated by an asterisk from up to four sets of digits which are separated by colons. Allele names have at least four digits, corresponding to the first two sets designating the allele group and the specific HLA protein. The third and fourth set of digits indicate changes in the DNA sequences in the coding and non-coding regions respectively, that do not influence the amino acid sequence of the protein. They are only assigned if necessary.

Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) nomenclature - antibodies-online.com

HLA alleles are decribed by a unique name identifying the gene, the allele group (field 1), the specific HLA protein (field 2), and changes in the DNA sequence in the coding (field 3) and non-coding (field 4) regions. An additional suffix provides further information regarding protein expression.

HLA typing refers to the process of identifying the specific alleles present at HLA gene loci, which encode cell surface proteins responsible for immune system regulation. Accurate HLA typing is essential for determining compatibility between donors and recipients in organ transplantation and for understanding the genetic basis of various diseases and drug responses.2-field reporting is a HLA typing method that identifies alleles based on their protein sequence differences. This reporting format provides information on the first two fields of the allele designation, i.e. the allele group and the specific HLA protein. 2-field reporting does not include any information about the corresponding DNA sequence. 4-field reporting on the other hand includes all four fields of the HLA allele, including its nucleotide sequence. In a clinical setting, 2-field reporting can sufficiently describe disease associations of particular HLA types or donor-recipient compatibility in a transplantation. 4-field reporting adds additional information which can be in a research setting, e.g. genomics studies.

HLA in Infectious Diseases

Classical class I and class II MHC are leading candidates for infectious disease susceptibility. Many observations point to a major role in determining susceptibility to viral infections. Individuals with the allele HLA-B*46:01 for example have been shown to have the fewest predicted binding peptides for SARS and SARS-CoV-2. A different allele, HLA-B*15:03, shows the greatest capacity to present highly conserved SARS-CoV-2 peptides that are shared among common human coronaviruses, suggesting it could enable cross-protective T-cell based immunity.These observations point towards a potential influence of different HLA composition - the haplotype - in the situations such as the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Association of various HLA haplotypes with SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and the course of COVID-19 could allow strategizing prevention, treatment, vaccination, and optimizing clinical approaches.

Peptide-Free HLA Molecules

Despite the influence of the HLA haplotype, the main determinant of HLA-specificity is the presented peptide. Peptide-free MHC proteins are utilized in various research areas such as structural studies and T cell receptor engineering, to identify potential new drug candidates, in vaccine development, and to explore the functional aspects of MHC molecules. However, MHC molecules are generally not stable in the peptide-free state and must be stabilized.

antibodies-online offers assembled and stabilized peptide-free MHC class I complexes in monomeric and tetrameric formats expressed in HEK-293 cells.

Product
Cat. No.
Quantity
Datasheet
Cat. No. ABIN7504419
Quantity 100 μg
Datasheet Datasheet
Cat. No. ABIN7504417
Quantity 100 μg
Datasheet Datasheet
Cat. No. ABIN7504413
Quantity 100 μg
Datasheet Datasheet
Cat. No. ABIN7504407
Quantity 100 μg
Datasheet Datasheet
Cat. No. ABIN7504386
Quantity 100 μg
Datasheet Datasheet
Cat. No. ABIN7504376
Quantity 100 μg
Datasheet Datasheet

References

  • Blackwell, Jamieson, Burgner: "HLA and infectious diseases." in: Clinical microbiology reviews, Vol. 22, Issue 2, pp. 370-85, Table of Contents, (2009) (PubMed).
  • Kishore, Petrek: "Next-Generation Sequencing Based HLA Typing: Deciphering Immunogenetic Aspects of Sarcoidosis." in: Frontiers in genetics, Vol. 9, pp. 503, (2018) (PubMed).
  • Robinson, Barker, Georgiou, Cooper, Flicek, Marsh: "IPD-IMGT/HLA Database." in: Nucleic acids research, Vol. 48, Issue D1, pp. D948-D955, (2020) (PubMed).
  • Anjanappa, Garcia-Alai, Kopicki, Lockhauserbäumer, Aboelmagd, Hinrichs, Nemtanu, Uetrecht, Zacharias, Springer, Meijers: "Structures of peptide-free and partially loaded MHC class I molecules reveal mechanisms of peptide selection." in: Nature communications, Vol. 11, Issue 1, pp. 1314, (2020) (PubMed).
  • Shi, Wang, Shao, Huang, Gan, Huang, Bucci, Piacentini, Ippolito, Melino: "COVID-19 infection: the perspectives on immune responses." in: Cell death and differentiation, Vol. 27, Issue 5, pp. 1451-1454, (2020) (PubMed).
  • Nguyen, David, Maden, Wood, Weeder, Nellore, Thompson: "Human Leukocyte Antigen Susceptibility Map for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2." in: Journal of virology, Vol. 94, Issue 13, (2020) (PubMed).
  • Tarke, Sidney, Kidd, Dan, Ramirez, Yu, Mateus, da Silva Antunes, Moore, Rubiro, Methot, Phillips, Mallal, Frazier, Rawlings, Greenbaum, Peters, Smith, Crotty, Weiskopf, Grifoni, Sette: "Comprehensive analysis of T cell immunodominance and immunoprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 epitopes in COVID-19 cases." in: Cell reports. Medicine, Vol. 2, Issue 2, pp. 100204, (2021) (PubMed).
  • Sun, Young, Woodward, Danon, Truong, Gupta, Winters, Font-Burgada, Burslem, Sgourakis: "Universal open MHC-I molecules for rapid peptide loading and enhanced complex stability across HLA allotypes." in: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 120, Issue 25, pp. e2304055120, (2023) (PubMed).
Stefan Pellenz
Dr. Stefan Pellenz, PhD
Product Manager at antibodies-online.com

Goal-oriented, time line driven scientist, proficiently trained in different academic institutions in Germany, France and the USA. Experienced in the life sciences e-commerce environment with a focus on product development and customer relation management.

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