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IHC Antibodies

antibodies-online offers you currently more than 250,000 IHC antibodies. If you need help with finding the right product for your needs, please contact our customer support via phone, live chat or email.

Browse all IHC antibodies

Overview of Immunohistochemistry

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) refers to the process of detecting antigens in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues. Its widely used in the diagnosis of abnormal cells such as those found in cancerous tumors and in basic research to understand the distribution and localization of biomarkers and differentially expressed proteins in different parts of a biological tissue. Visualising an antibody-antigen interaction can be accomplished in a number of ways. In the most common instance, an antibody is conjugated to an enzyme, such as peroxidase, that can catalyse a colour-producing reaction or tagged to a fluorophore.

Antibodies for IHC

Tissue Preparation

The tissue sample preparation is of crucial importance, because inadequate handling may disrupt tissue structure, cause reduced antibody binding affinity or even prevent binding altogether. The goal is to preserve the tissue in close to life-like conditions while concomitantly preventing autolysis and degradation due to bacterial or fungal growth. To this end, fixatives are used, such as paraformaldehyde-lysin-periodate (PLP) or formalin. The most common fixative is 4%-10% (in some cases up to 40%) formaldehyde in 0.1M phosphate buffer (in order to stabilize the pH).

For tissue that does not tolerate formaldehyde incubation, an often used alternative is that samples are snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen, and then cut into sections. Tissues incubated with fixatives are embedded in a matrix, e.g. paraffin, or, after they have been dehydrated, in alcohol (isopropanol or ethanol), and then cut into sections. For sensitive tissues the application of a vibratome microtome may be advisable, due to the lower physical stress it produces on the tissues.

Antigen Retrieval

Despite its superior preservation quality, in terms of morphology, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples can lose some or all immunoreactivity due to structural changes of the targeted antigen. The demonstration of antigens, and hence the immunoreactivity, can be improved using various techniques. Mainly, there are two distinct approaches, i.e. heat treatment, the so-called "heat induced epitope retrieval" (HIER), and the "proteolytic induced epitope retrieval" (PIER). In order to apply these techniques tissue-sections have to be deparaffinized and rehydrated first.

HIER works by applying, what is often referred to as retrieval solution. This preheated buffer has varying composition and pH, often consisting of Tris-HCl or citrate. The emerged samples are exposed to heat for varying times (usually between 10-60 minutes) and then slowly cooled. The heating itself may be carried out using an autoclave, waterbath, pressure-cooker or similar appliance.

PIER works by applying digestion enzymes, such as proteinase K, trypsin, pepsin and various other proteinases. Optimal incubation time and concentrations have to be tested. In the final run sample specificities should be optimized. Occasionally it may be required to combine HIER and PIER in order to achieve antigen ?unmasking? following formalin-incubation.

Staining Methodologies

Direct method

In this method a labelled antibody (e.g. with a substrate-chromogen) reacts directly with the antigen in the tissue. The advantage is that only one antibody is needed, hence the application is fast and produces little nonspecific binding. On the other hand, since only one antibody binds one epitope, the signal intensity is low. For applications with small amounts of antigen the signal may be too weak.

Indirect method (two-step)

In order to upscale the low signal intensity of the direct method, the indirect method has been developed. The primary antibody binds to the antigen, followed by a second (labelled) antibody binding the primary. The signal is amplified due to the binding of multiple secondary antibodies to a single primary antibody. Another advantage is that only one labelled antibody needs to be employed for different targets, which may reduce costs. One disadvantage is that nonspecific binding occurs more frequently than with the direct method.

Three-step method

In order to further amplify the signal an additional antibody may be employed that binds to the secondary antibody. This method leads to a third layer of antibodies all of which are labelled. This application is useful for staining of antigens with a limited number of epitopes.

PAP method

Today, the peroxidase anti-peroxidase method is rarely used, but has been popular in pathology laboratories previously. It is an indirect method which depends on a third layer of antibodies, bound to peroxidase, that binds an unconjugated second layer antibody. The peroxidase is not chemically conjugated to the IgG but immunologically bound. That means that the third layer antibody is specific for peroxidase. This leads to a much higher activity of the peroxidase, in turn increasing the assay sensitivity by two to three orders of a magnitude.

(Strept)Avidin-Biotin Complex (ABC) methods

Nowadays, one of the most commonly used method for staining is based on the high affinity that avidin (chicken egg) and streptavidin (Streptomyces avidinii) have for the glycoprotein biotin. The basic principle is that avidin (or streptavidin) reacts with a biotinylated secondary antibody, followed by a horseradish peroxidase reaction.

In some cases catalyzed signal amplification (CSA) is employed. An amplification reagent leads to the aggregation of a large number of biotins that subsequently react with streptavidin-labelled peroxidase. One issue with avidin is its large electrostatic binding, due to its molecular charge. Streptavidin does not have the same propensity, thus reducing the background signal.

Polymeric methods

In short, polymeric methods employ large antibody-bound polymers with the ability to bind a larger number of molecules, typically an average of ten antibodies and approximately 70 enzyme molecules. This setup allows for outstanding amplification of the signal, hence high sensitivity, reduced nonspecific binding, and therefore low background signal. It also allows for staining of two different antigens at the same time.

IHC Antibodies

249,242 results:

RFP 适用: Discosoma ELISA, FACS, IF, IHC, IHC (fro), IHC (p), IP, WB 宿主: 兔 Polyclonal unconjugated
Pubmed 353 references Independent Validation 1 validation
产品编号 ABIN129578
$295.00
Free shipping!
100 μL (More quantities available)
发货至: 美国
1至2个工作日
Antigen: collagen type III alpha 1 chain COL1 适用: 人, 小鼠, 大鼠, Cow, 哺乳动物 ELISA, IHC, IP, WB 宿主: 兔 Polyclonal unconjugated
Pubmed 62 references Independent Validation 1 validation
产品编号 ABIN5596819
$491.70
加上运输费 $45.00
100 μg (More quantities available)
发货至: 美国
1至2个工作日
AIF1 适用: 人, 小鼠, 大鼠 IHC (fro), IHC (p), IHC, WB 宿主: 兔 Polyclonal unconjugated
Pubmed 13 references Independent Validation 1 validation
产品编号 ABIN2857032
$509.08
加上运输费 $45.00
100 μL
发货至: 美国
3至4个工作日
CASP8 适用: 人, 小鼠, 大鼠, 猴, Pig, 绵羊 ELISA, FACS, IF (cc), IF (p), IHC (fro), IHC (p), WB 宿主: 兔 Polyclonal unconjugated
Pubmed 15 references Independent Validation 1 validation
产品编号 ABIN724205
$352.31
加上运输费 $45.00
100 μL
发货至: 美国
4至6个工作日
TNF alpha 适用: 人, 小鼠, 大鼠, 马, 兔 ELISA, IF (p), IHC (fro), IHC (p), WB 宿主: 兔 Polyclonal unconjugated
Pubmed 21 references Independent Validation 1 validation
产品编号 ABIN677318
$352.31
加上运输费 $45.00
100 μL
发货至: 美国
4至6个工作日
Abeta 适用: 人, 小鼠 IHC, ELISA, WB 宿主: 兔 Polyclonal unconjugated
Pubmed 1 reference Independent Validation 2 validations
产品编号 ABIN95037
$481.80
Plus shipping costs $45.00 and $20.00 dry ice
100 μg (More quantities available)
发货至: 美国
1至2个工作日
Synonym: catenin beta 1 CATNB 适用: 人, 小鼠, 大鼠 ChIP, CUT&RUN, ICC, IF, IHC (p), IP, WB 宿主: 兔 Polyclonal unconjugated
Pubmed 8 references Independent Validation 1 validation
产品编号 ABIN2855042
$509.08
加上运输费 $45.00
100 μL
发货至: 美国
3至4个工作日
NFKB1 适用: 人 IF, IHC, WB 宿主: 兔 Polyclonal unconjugated
Pubmed 2 references Independent Validation 1 validation
产品编号 ABIN6144571
$589.88
加上运输费 $45.00
100 μL (More quantities available)
发货至: 美国
10至11个工作日
适用: 人, 小鼠, 大鼠, Cow ELISA, IF (cc), IF (p), IHC (fro), IHC (p), WB 宿主: 兔 Polyclonal unconjugated
Pubmed 5 references Independent Validation 1 validation
产品编号 ABIN671256
$352.31
加上运输费 $45.00
100 μL
发货至: 美国
4至6个工作日
OCLN 适用: 人, 小鼠, Pig ELISA, FACS, IF (cc), IF (p), IHC (p), WB 宿主: 兔 Polyclonal unconjugated
Pubmed 5 references Independent Validation 1 validation
产品编号 ABIN687337
$352.31
加上运输费 $45.00
100 μL
发货至: 美国
4至6个工作日
  • 类型 Primary
    • Primary
  • 抗原
    • Tumor Protein P53 (TP53)
    • Histone 3 (H3)
    • Protein tyrosine Phosphatase, Receptor Type, C (PTPRC)
    • V-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 1 (AKT1)
    • Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)
    • Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP)
    • Nuclear Factor-kB p65 (NFkBP65)
    • Chromogranin A (CHGA)
    • CD4
    • B-Cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2)
    • Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EPCAM)
    • Keratin 18 (KRT18)
    • Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF alpha)
    • Albumin (ALB)
    • Estrogen Receptor 1 (ESR1)
    • Mucin 1 (MUC1)
    • Keratin 8 (KRT8)
    • Vimentin (VIM)
    • CD8a Molecule (CD8A)
    • Jun Proto-Oncogene (JUN)
    • Platelet/endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (PECAM1)
    • CD34
    • Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 (ErbB2/Her2)
    • Keratin 19 (KRT19)
    • Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70)
    • Myc Proto-Oncogene protein (MYC)
    • BCL2-Associated Agonist of Cell Death (BAD)
    • tau Protein
    • Insulin (INS)
    • Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase, 70kDa, Polypeptide 1 (RPS6KB1)
    • Heat Shock 27kDa Protein 1 (HSPB1)
    • Heat Shock 60kDa Protein 1 (Chaperonin) (HSPD1)
    • Melan A (MLANA)
    • Retinoblastoma 1 (RB1)
    • CD44
    • alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP)
    • SMAD, Mothers Against DPP Homolog 3 (SMAD3)
    • Caspase 3 (CASP3)
    • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1) (CDKN1A)
    • Synuclein, alpha (SNCA)
    • CD5
    • Keratin 7 (KRT7)
    • Amyloid beta (A4) Precursor Protein (APP)
    • Mast/stem Cell Growth Factor Receptor (KIT)
    • C-Abl Oncogene 1, Non-Receptor tyrosine Kinase (ABL1)
    • V-Raf-1 Murine Leukemia Viral Oncogene Homolog 1 (RAF1)
    • CD3 epsilon (CD3E)
    • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1B (p27, Kip1) (CDKN1B)
    • Activating Transcription Factor 2 (ATF2)
    • Interferon gamma (IFNG)
    Please use search to find more...
  • 应用范围 Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (p)), Immunohistochemistry (Frozen Sections) (IHC (fro)), Immunohistochemistry (Formalin-fixed Sections) (IHC (f)), Immunohistochemistry (Formalin-fixed Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (fp)), Immunohistochemistry (Zinc-fixed Sections) (IHC (zinc)), Immunohistochemistry (Paraformaldehyde) (IHC (pfa)), Immunohistochemistry (Free Floating) (IHC (ff)), Immunohistochemistry (Whole Mount) (IHC (wm)), Immunohistochemistry (Resin Sections) (IHC (rs)), Immunohistochemistry (Fixed) (IHC (fx)), Immunohistochemistry (Acetone-fixed) (IHC (af))
    • Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
    • Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (p))
    • Immunohistochemistry (Frozen Sections) (IHC (fro))
    • Immunohistochemistry (Formalin-fixed Sections) (IHC (f))
    • Immunohistochemistry (Formalin-fixed Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (fp))
    • Immunohistochemistry (Zinc-fixed Sections) (IHC (zinc))
    • Immunohistochemistry (Paraformaldehyde) (IHC (pfa))
    • Immunohistochemistry (Free Floating) (IHC (ff))
    • Immunohistochemistry (Whole Mount) (IHC (wm))
    • Immunohistochemistry (Resin Sections) (IHC (rs))
    • Immunohistochemistry (Fixed) (IHC (fx))
    • Immunohistochemistry (Acetone-fixed) (IHC (af))
    • Western Blotting (WB)
    • ELISA
    • Immunofluorescence (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IF (p))
    • Immunofluorescence (Cultured Cells) (IF (cc))
    • Flow Cytometry (FACS)
    • Immunofluorescence (IF)
    • Immunoprecipitation (IP)
    • Immunocytochemistry (ICC)
    • Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA)
    • Immunofluorescence (fixed cells) (IF/ICC)
    • Dot Blot (DB)
    • Immunochromatography (IC)
    • Radioimmunoassay (RIA)
    • Functional Studies (Func)
    • Neutralization (Neut)
    • Immunostaining (ISt)
    • Coating (Coat)
    • Fluorescence Microscopy (FM)
    • Staining Methods (StM)
    • Immunodiffusion (ID)
    • Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP)
    • Immunoassay (IA)
    • Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA)
    • Confocal Microscopy (CM)
    • Immunoelectrophoresis (IEP)
    • ELISA (Detection)
    • Antibody Array (AA)
    • Lateral Flow (LF)
    • Blocking Antibody (Inhibition)
    • RNA Interference (RNAi)
    • Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA)
    • ChIP DNA-Sequencing (ChIP-seq)
    • ELISA (Capture)
    • Cytotoxicity Test (CyTox)
    • Cellular Assay (CA)
    • Blocking Reagent (BR)
    • Immunoelectron Microscopy (IEM)
    • Live Cell Imaging (LCI)
    • ELISpot
    • FLISA
    • Blocking Peptide (BP)
    • Gel Shift (GS)
    • Luminex Assay (LMNX)
    • Protein Assay (PrA)
    • Detection (D)
  • 适用
    • 小鼠
    • 大鼠
    • Cow
    • Pig
    • 豚鼠
    • 小鸡
    • 斑马鱼
    • Hamster
    • 绵羊
    • Bat
    • 非洲爪蟾
    • 山羊
    • 哺乳动物
    • Cat
    • Drosophila melanogaster
    • Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    • Non-Human Primate
    • Frog
    • Chimpanzee
    • Gorilla
    • Virus
    • 化学剂
    • 猕猴
    • Baboon
    • Gibbon
    • Cynomolgus
    • Various Species
    • 植物
    • 灵长类
    • E. coli
    • 雪貂
    • Bacteria
    • Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)
    • Macaque
    • 所有种类
    • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
    • Orang-Utan
    • Aequorea victoria
    • Avian
    • Insect
    • C. elegans
    • Marmoset
    • Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16)
    • Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)
    Please use search to find more...
  • 论文引用
  • 图像
  • 独立验证
  • Preservative free only
  • 检测方法
    • Fluorometric
  • 抗体来源
    • 小鼠
    • 山羊
    • 大鼠
    • 绵羊
    • 豚鼠
    • 小鸡
    • 仓鼠
    • Armenian Hamster
    • Human
    • Alpaca
    • Chicken eggs
    • Golden Syrian Hamster
    • Chicken egg
    • Rabbit/Mouse Cocktail
    • Various Hosts
  • 克隆形成能力
    • Polyclonal
    • Monoclonal
    • Chimeric
  • 克隆
    • C1
    • C2
    • C3
    • C5
    • C4
    • D4
    • 2F11
    • 145-2C11
    • 2F6
    • 5A5
    • PAb
    • 9E10
    • MEL-14
    • 1A4
    • 2C1
    • 3F8
    • 3G8
    • C6
    • 1F8
    • RB6-8C5
    • 4C2
    • 1F6
    • 53-6-7
    • 2D2
    • 3G4
    • UCHT1
    • 1C7
    • 1D4
    • 2A4
    • 3B5
    • 1A6
    • 2C4
    • 2D10
    • 2G4
    • 3A4
    • AE-1
    • C11
    • 1A1
    • 1D6
    • 30-H12
    • 4A3
    • 8C8
    • E11
    • LK1
    • 1F3
    • 2F7
    • PY20
    • 1A5
    • 2B6
    • 3F4
    Please use search to find more...
  • 抗原表位
    • C-Term
    • N-Term
    • Internal Region
    • Center
    • AA 1-30
    • Middle Region
    • AA 1-100
    • AA 101-200
    • AA 51-150
    • Extracellular Domain
    • AA 201-300
    • AA 151-250
    • AA 21-120
    • Cytoplasmic Domain
    • AA 301-400
    • full length
    • AA 251-350
    • AA 1-50
    • AA 31-130
    • AA 401-500
    • AA 351-450
    • Intracellular
    • AA 501-600
    • AA 1-80
    • AA 1-300
    • AA 121-220
    • AA 451-550
    • Extracellular
    • AA 131-230
    • AA 1-200
    • AA 50-100
    • 3rd Cytoplasmic Domain
    • AA 81-180
    • AA 10-90
    • AA 100-150
    • AA 231-330
    • AA 41-140
    • AA 150-200
    • AA 30-110
    • AA 221-320
    • AA 61-160
    • BH3 Domain
    • AA 601-700
    • AA 1-250
    • AA 40-120
    • 2nd Extracellular Domain
    • AA 161-260
    • AA 701-800
    • AA 551-650
    • AA 16-46
    Please use search to find more...
  • 标记
    • 非结合性
    • Biotin
    • HRP
    • FITC
    • PE
    • APC
    • Alkaline Phosphatase (AP)
    • CF®488A
    • CF®405S
    • CF®568
    • CF®594
    • CF®640R
    • CF®647
    • CF®680
    • CF®680R
    • CF®770
    • PerCP
    • CF®660R
    • Atto 488
    • Atto 594
    • Atto 390
    • SPRD
    • PE-Cy5
    • CF®555
    • PE-Cy7
    • Cy5
    • Cy7,PE
    • PE,Cy5
    • Cy5.5,PE
    • APC-Cy7
    • DyLight 488
    • CF405M
    • PE-Cy5.5
    • DyLight 650
    • PE-DyLight 594
    • Cy3
    • Streptavidin
    • CF®543
    • DyLight 549
    • Atto 633
    • His-Myc tag
    • TRITC
    • Atto 550
    • CF-Blue
    • PE,Texas Red (TR)
    • Peroxidase (POD)
    • Rhodamine
    • Alexa Fluor 647
    • DyLight 550
    • GST tag
    Please use search to find more...
  • 抗体亚型
    • IgG
    • IgG1
    • Ig Fraction
    • IgG1 kappa
    • IgG2a
    • IgG2a kappa
    • IgG2b
    • IgG2b kappa
    • IgG kappa
    • IgM
    • IgY
    • IgG2
    • IgG3
    • IgM kappa
    • IgG3 kappa
    • IgG2c kappa
    • IgG2b lambda
    • IgG2a lambda
    • IgG Mix lambda
    • kappa
    • IgG lambda
    • IgG2c
    • IgG1 lambda
    • IgG1/IgG2b
    • IgG2 kappa
    • IgG4 kappa
    • Ig kappa
    • Cocktail
    • IgG3 lambda
    • Ig Mix
    • IgA
    • IgA kappa
    • IgG1a
    • IgG4 lambda
    • IgE
    • IgE kappa
    • IgG IgA IgM Mix
    • IgG Mix
    • IgG Mix kappa
    • IgG1 lamda
    • IgG2 lambda
  • 蛋白类型
    • Recombinant Antibody
  • Format
    • Liquid
    • Lyophilized
    • Frozen
    • Concentrated
  • 生物活性
    • Active
  • Fragment
    • single-domain Antibody (sdAb)
    • scFv fragment
    • F(ab')2 fragment
    • Fab fragment
  • Grade
    • Verified
    • KO Validated
    • GMP Grade
    • In vivo Grade
    • Calibrator Grade
    • ChIP-seq Grade
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    • Assay Biotechnology Company, Inc.
    • NSJ Bioreagents
    • ProSci
    • Cohesion Biosciences
    • Assaypro
    • FabGennix
    • Boster Bio
    • Rockland
    • Signalway
    • Alomone Labs
    • Angio-Proteomie
    • Wuhan Fine biotech
    • OriGene
    • CUSABIO
    • Affinity Biosciences
    • Enogene Biotech
    • Antibodies Incorporated
    • Elabscience
    • PROGEN
    • Synaptic Systems
    • St John's Laboratory
    • Randox Lifesciences
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