Cytokines affect nearly every biological process; these include embryonic development, disease pathogenesis, non-specific response to infection, specific response to antigen, changes in cognitive functions and progression of the degenerative processes of aging. In addition, cytokines are part of stem cell differentiation, vaccine efficacy and allograft rejection.8
antibodies-online offers a wide range of antibodies, proteins, arrays and kits for cytokines. Below you will find an overview of the most important cytokines. By clicking on the specific link you will get to the corresponding products.
Among the most potent molecules of the innate immune system are the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family members. These evolutionarily ancient cytokines are made by and act on innate immune cells to influence their survival and function. In addition, they act directly on lymphocytes to reinforce certain adaptive immune responses.1 Click on the link to find products for the desired IL-1 family target.
The interleukin (IL)-6 family cytokines is a group of cytokines consisting of IL-6, IL-11, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), oncostatin M (OSM), cardiotrophin 1 (CT-1), cardiotrophin-like cytokine (CLC), and IL-27. They are grouped into one family because the receptor complex of each cytokine contains two (IL-6 and IL-11) or one molecule (all others cytokines) of the signaling receptor subunit gp130. IL-6 family cytokines have overlapping but also distinct biologic activities and are involved among others in the regulation of the hepatic acute phase reaction, in B-cell stimulation, in the regulation of the balance between regulatory and effector T cells, in metabolic regulation, and in many neural functions.2 Click on the link to find products for the desired IL-6 family target.
In 2001, six immune mediators (IL-10, IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, and IL-26) were grouped into the so-called IL-10 family of cytokines based on their similarities with respect to the structure and location of their encoding genes, their primary and secondary protein structures, and the receptor complexes used. Surprisingly, despite all these similarities, IL-10 family members possess different biological functions. The currently known facts regarding the biological effects of these six immune mediators give the impression that at least IL-10, IL-20, and IL-22 play an important role in the pathogenesis of some chronic inflammatory diseases.3 Click on the link to find products for the desired IL-10 family target.
Interferons are currently used clinically to treat viral infections such as hepatitis C, cancers including non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Interferon lambda currently has no FDA approved uses, but researchers use it in research models of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and viral infections. The various types of interferons include interferon-gamma 1b, interferon beta 1a, lyophilized, PEGylated interferon-alpha 2b, interferon 1b, interferon beta 1a, biogenic form, interferon-alpha 2b, PEGylated interferon-alpha 2a, PEGylated interferon-alpha 2b plus ribavirin, PEGylated interferon-alpha 2b, interferon beta 1a liquid form, PEGylated interferon-alpha 2a, and interferon-alpha 2a.4 Click on the link to find products for the desired Interferon target.
TGF beta Family
The name TGF-β derives from the transforming activity of the cytokine, which induces anchorage-independent growth when administered to cells together with EGF or without the need to add EGF, depending on the cell system. At first, two distinct transforming growth factors, that is, TGF-α and -β, were identified and isolated. TGF-α is related to EGF and binds to the EGF receptor, whereas TGF-β is structurally distinct from TGF-α. The most striking characteristic, which distinguished the two cytokines at that time, was that TGF-β is a 25-kd disulfide-linked dimer that is reduced to a 12.5-kd band on gels following treatment with reducing agents, for example, β-mercaptoethanol), whereas TGF-α was a monomeric protein of smaller size.5 Click on the link to find products for the desired TGF beta family target.
TGF beta Family Receptor
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family includes TNF alpha (TNFα), TNF beta (TNFβ), CD40 ligand (CD40L), Fas ligand (FasL), TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), and LIGHT (is homologous to lymphotoxins, exhibits inducible expression, and competes with HSV glycoprotein D for HVEM, a receptor expressed by T lymphocytes), some of the most important cytokines involved in physiological processes, systematic inflammation, tumor lysis, apoptosis and initiation of the acute phase reaction.6 Click on the link to find products for the desired TNF family target.
The chemokines (or chemotactic cytokines) are a large family of small, secreted proteins that signal through cell surface G protein coupled heptahelical chemokine receptors. They are best known for their ability to stimulate the migration of cells, most notably white blood cells (leukocytes). Consequently, chemokines play a central role in the development and homeostasis of the immune system, and are involved in all protective or destructive immune and inflammatory responses.7 Click on the link to find products for the desired chemokine target.
High-quality Cytokine Arrays
We also offer a hand-selected variety of high quality Cytokine arrays for 2, 4 or 8 samples. click on the link to see product details.
- (1) Sims, J., Smith, D. The IL-1 family: regulators of immunity. Nat Rev Immunol 10, 89–102 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1038/nri2691
- (2) Rose-John S. Interleukin-6 Family Cytokines. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2018;10(2):a028415. Published 2018 Feb 1. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a028415
- (3) Sabat R. IL-10 family of cytokines. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2010 Oct;21(5):315-24. doi: 10.1016/j.cytogfr.2010.11.001. PMID: 21112807.
- (4) Khanna NR, Gerriets V. Interferon. [Updated 2020 Jul 10]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK555932/
- (5) Morikawa M, Derynck R, Miyazono K. TGF-β and the TGF-β Family: Context-Dependent Roles in Cell and Tissue Physiology. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2016;8(5):a021873. Published 2016 May 2. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a021873
- (6) Chu WM. Tumor necrosis factor. Cancer Lett. 2013;328(2):222-225. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2012.10.014
- (7) Hughes CE, Nibbs RJB. A guide to chemokines and their receptors. FEBS J. 2018;285(16):2944-2971. doi:10.1111/febs.14466
- (8) Dinarello CA. Historical insights into cytokines. Eur J Immunol. 2007;37 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S34-S45. doi:10.1002/eji.200737772
References: "The IL-1 family: regulators of immunity." in: Nature reviews. Immunology, Vol. 10, Issue 2, pp. 89-102, (2010) (PubMed).
: "Interleukin-6 Family Cytokines." in: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology, Vol. 10, Issue 2, (2019) (PubMed).
: "IL-10 family of cytokines." in: Cytokine & growth factor reviews, Vol. 21, Issue 5, pp. 315-24, (2011) (PubMed).
: "TGF-β and the TGF-β Family: Context-Dependent Roles in Cell and Tissue Physiology." in: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology, Vol. 8, Issue 5, (2017) (PubMed).
: "Tumor necrosis factor." in: Cancer letters, Vol. 328, Issue 2, pp. 222-5, (2013) (PubMed).
: "A guide to chemokines and their receptors." in: The FEBS journal, Vol. 285, Issue 16, pp. 2944-2971, (2019) (PubMed).
: "Historical insights into cytokines." in: European journal of immunology, Vol. 37 Suppl 1, pp. S34-45, (2008) (PubMed).