Autophagy is the regulated, self-degradative process of the cell that disassembles unnecessary or dysfunctional components. The lysosomal pathway is evolutionarily conserved and initiates engulfment, degradation and recycling of cellular contents including long-lived proteins and organelles thus promoting cell survival. Autophagy is induced by conditions of nutrient deprivation as well as physiological and pathological processes such as development, differentiation, neurodegenerative diseases, stress, infection, obesity, and cancer.

Three major forms of autophagy are commonly described: Macroautophagy, Microautophagy, and mitophagy, along with chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Macroautophagy is the primary pathway and initiates isolation of cytoplasmic targets via a double-membraned vesicle - the autophagosome. The autophagosome then travels through the cytoplasm of the cell to a lysosome, and the two organelles fuse. Within the newbuilt autolysosome, the contents of the autophagosome are degraded via acidic lysosomal hydrolases.

Macroautophagy is executed by more than 30 autophagy-related (Atg) genes. In mammals, amino acids, growth factors and ROS regulate the activity of protein kinases mTOR and AMPK. These two are crucial for autophagy regulation through inhibitory phosphorylation of the Unc-51-like kinases ULK1 and ULK2. ULK is part of a protein complex containing Atg13, Atg101 and FIP200 and phosphorylates and activates Beclin-1. The active ULK and Beclin-1 complexes re-localize to the site of autophagosome initiation, the phagophore, where they both contribute to the activation of downstream autophagy components. The class III PI(3) kinase complex mediates the nucleation of autophagosomes. VPS34 phosphorylates the lipid phosphatidylinositol and generates phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) on the surface of the phagophore. Downstream of PtdIns3P production, WIPI2B links PtdIns(3)P to LC3 lipidation through ATG12–ATG5-ATG16L1 (E3-like) complex. The two ubiquitin-like pathways of ATG8 and ATG12 induce the elongation and expansion of the phagophore membrane. Lipidated LC3 form of LC3, known as LC3-II, contributes to the closure of autophagosomes and enables the docking of specific cargos and adaptor proteins such as Sequestosome-1/p62. The completed autophagosome then fuses with the help of SNARE and UVRAG with a lysosome. The contents of the autolysosome are degraded and their basic modules are released from the vesicle through the action of permeases.

Mitophagy is the selective degradation of mitochondria by autophagy. It is triggered by defective mitochondria following damage or oxidative stress. Mitophagy prevents cellular degeneration caused by accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria. NIX and its regulator BNIP3 mediate mitophagy in mammals as well as PINK1 and parkin proteins. The occurrence of mitophagy is not limited to the damaged mitochondria but also involves undamaged ones.

Microautophagy, involves the direct engulfment of cytoplasmic material and organelles, such as the peroxisome and the nucleus into the lysosome. This occurs by invagination, meaning the inward folding of the lysosomal membrane, or cellular protrusion.

Chaperone-mediated autophagy differs from the other autophagic pathways as it does not involve vesicle formation but, rather, a direct translocation of a specific set of proteins across the lysosomal membrane. The cytosolic chaperone hsc70, plays a major role in target recognition and transport to the lysosom. Targeted proteins must have an amino acid sequence a with pentapeptide motif biochemically related to KFERQ in order to be bound by hsc70.


BECN1 - Beclin 1

Beclin-1 participates in the regulation of autophagy and has an important role in development, tumorigenesis, and neurodegeneration (Zhong et al., 2009 [PubMed 19270693]).[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2010].   更多...
AKT1S1 - AKT1 Substrate 1 (Proline-Rich): AKT1S1 抗体 AKT1S1 ELISA试剂盒 AKT1S1 蛋白
BCL2 (B-Cell CLL/lymphoma 2): BCL2 抗体 BCL2 ELISA试剂盒 BCL2 蛋白
MLST8 (mTOR Associated Protein, LST8 Homolog (S. Cerevisiae)): MLST8 抗体 MLST8 ELISA试剂盒 MLST8 蛋白
ULK1 (Unc-51 Like Kinase 1 (C. Elegans)): ULK1 抗体 ULK1 ELISA试剂盒 ULK1 蛋白

Elongation and Closure

E2F1 (E2F Transcription Factor 1):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the E2F family of transcription factors. The E2F family plays a crucial role in the control of cell cycle and action of tumor suppressor proteins and is also a target of the transforming proteins of small DNA tumor viruses. The E2F proteins contain several evolutionally conserved domains found in most members of the family. These domains include a...   更多...

PIK3C3 (Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase, Class 3):

ATG12 (Autophagy Related 12): ATG12 抗体 ATG12 ELISA试剂盒 ATG12 蛋白
ATG13 (Autophagy Related 13): ATG13 抗体   ATG13 蛋白
CASC5 (Cancer Susceptibility Candidate 5): CASC5 抗体   CASC5 蛋白
COL3A1 (Collagen, Type III, alpha 1): COL3A1 抗体 COL3A1 ELISA试剂盒 COL3A1 蛋白
FN1 - Fibronectin 1: FN1 抗体 FN1 ELISA试剂盒 FN1 蛋白
GABARAP - GABA(A) Receptor-Associated Protein: GABARAP 抗体 GABARAP ELISA试剂盒 GABARAP 蛋白
GABARAPL1 (GABA(A) Receptor-Associated Protein Like 1): GABARAPL1 抗体   GABARAPL1 蛋白
GABARAPL2 - GABA(A) Receptor-Associated Protein-Like 2: GABARAPL2 抗体 GABARAPL2 ELISA试剂盒 GABARAPL2 蛋白
GSN - Gelsolin: GSN 抗体 GSN ELISA试剂盒 GSN 蛋白
LHCGR - Luteinizing Hormone/choriogonadotropin Receptor: LHCGR 抗体 LHCGR ELISA试剂盒 LHCGR 蛋白
LAMP1 (Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 1): LAMP1 抗体 LAMP1 ELISA试剂盒 LAMP1 蛋白
LAMP2 (Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 2): LAMP2 抗体 LAMP2 ELISA试剂盒 LAMP2 蛋白
MAP1LC3B - Microtubule-Associated Protein 1 Light Chain 3 beta: MAP1LC3B 抗体 MAP1LC3B ELISA试剂盒 MAP1LC3B 蛋白
MAP1LC3C (Microtubule-Associated Protein 1 Light Chain 3 gamma): MAP1LC3C 抗体   MAP1LC3C 蛋白

Cargo and Adaptor Proteins

SQSTM1 (Sequestosome 1):

This gene encodes a multifunctional protein that binds ubiquitin and regulates activation of the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kB) signaling pathway. The protein functions as a scaffolding/adaptor protein in concert with TNF receptor-associated factor 6 to mediate activation of NF-kB in response to upstream signals. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding either the same or different...   更多...
ATG3 (ATG3 Autophagy Related 3 Homolog (S. Cerevisiae)): ATG3 抗体 ATG3 ELISA试剂盒 ATG3 蛋白
ATG5 (ATG5 Autophagy Related 5 Homolog (S. Cerevisiae)): ATG5 抗体 ATG5 ELISA试剂盒 ATG5 蛋白
ATG7 - ATG7 Autophagy Related 7 Homolog (S. Cerevisiae): ATG7 抗体 ATG7 ELISA试剂盒 ATG7 蛋白
FKBP8 - FK506 Binding Protein 8, 38kDa: FKBP8 抗体 FKBP8 ELISA试剂盒 FKBP8 蛋白
KHDRBS1 (KH Domain Containing, RNA Binding, Signal Transduction Associated 1): KHDRBS1 抗体 KHDRBS1 ELISA试剂盒 KHDRBS1 蛋白
SLC39A1 - Solute Carrier Family 39 (Zinc Transporter), Member 1: SLC39A1 抗体 SLC39A1 ELISA试剂盒  
Slc39a2 - Solute Carrier Family 39 (Zinc Transporter), Member 2: Slc39a2 抗体    
SLC39A3 (Solute Carrier Family 39 (Zinc Transporter), Member 3): SLC39A3 抗体    
SLC39A4 - Solute Carrier Family 39 (Zinc Transporter), Member 4: SLC39A4 抗体   SLC39A4 蛋白

Lysosome Fusion and Degradation

GSTT2 (Glutathione S-Transferase theta 2):

Glutathione S-transferase (GSTs) theta 2 (GSTT2) is a member of a superfamily of proteins that catalyze the conjugation of reduced glutathione to a variety of electrophilic and hydrophobic compounds. Human GSTs can be divided into five main classes: Alpha, Mu, Pi, Theta, and Zeta. The theta class members GSTT1 and GSTT2 share 55% amino acid sequence identity and both are thought to have an...   更多...
CCL3 (Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 3): CCL3 抗体 CCL3 ELISA试剂盒 CCL3 蛋白
CXCL1 - Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 1 (Melanoma Growth Stimulating Activity, Alpha): CXCL1 抗体 CXCL1 ELISA试剂盒 CXCL1 蛋白
CXCL14 (Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 14): CXCL14 抗体 CXCL14 ELISA试剂盒 CXCL14 蛋白
CXCL3 (Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 3): CXCL3 抗体 CXCL3 ELISA试剂盒 CXCL3 蛋白
SH3GLB1 (SH3-Domain GRB2-Like Endophilin B1): SH3GLB1 抗体   SH3GLB1 蛋白


CD44 (CD44):

The protein encoded by this gene is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. It is a receptor for hyaluronic acid (HA) and can also interact with other ligands, such as osteopontin, collagens, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). This protein participates in a wide variety of cellular functions including lymphocyte activation, recirculation...   更多...

INS - Insulin

RAF1 (V-Raf-1 Murine Leukemia Viral Oncogene Homolog 1):

BMI1 (BMI1 Polycomb Ring Finger Oncogene): BMI1 抗体 BMI1 ELISA试剂盒 BMI1 蛋白
CEBPB (CCAAT/enhancer Binding Protein (C/EBP), beta): CEBPB 抗体 CEBPB ELISA试剂盒 CEBPB 蛋白
CDC25B (Cell Division Cycle 25 Homolog B (S. Pombe)): CDC25B 抗体 CDC25B ELISA试剂盒 CDC25B 蛋白
COL1A1 (Collagen, Type I, alpha 1): COL1A1 抗体 COL1A1 ELISA试剂盒 COL1A1 蛋白
COL3A1 (Collagen, Type III, alpha 1): COL3A1 抗体 COL3A1 ELISA试剂盒 COL3A1 蛋白
CDKN1A (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1)): CDKN1A 抗体 CDKN1A ELISA试剂盒 CDKN1A 蛋白
CDKN1B (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1B (p27, Kip1)): CDKN1B 抗体 CDKN1B ELISA试剂盒 CDKN1B 蛋白
CDKN2A - Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2A (Melanoma, P16, Inhibits CDK4): CDKN2A 抗体    
GDNF (Glial Cell Line Derived Neurotrophic Factor): GDNF 抗体 GDNF ELISA试剂盒 GDNF 蛋白
GSK3b - GSK3 beta: GSK3b 抗体 GSK3b ELISA试剂盒  
HRAS (V-Ha-Ras Harvey Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog): HRAS 抗体 HRAS ELISA试剂盒 HRAS 蛋白
HMGA1 - High Mobility Group AT-Hook 1: HMGA1 抗体 HMGA1 ELISA试剂盒 HMGA1 蛋白
INHBA (Inhibin, beta A): INHBA 抗体 INHBA ELISA试剂盒 INHBA 蛋白
ING1 - Inhibitor of Growth Family, Member 1: ING1 抗体 ING1 ELISA试剂盒 ING1 蛋白
ING2 (Inhibitor of Growth Family, Member 2): ING2 抗体   ING2 蛋白
IGF1 (Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1): IGF1 抗体 IGF1 ELISA试剂盒 IGF1 蛋白
IGF1R (Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor): IGF1R 抗体 IGF1R ELISA试剂盒 IGF1R 蛋白
IGFBP3 (Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3): IGFBP3 抗体 IGFBP3 ELISA试剂盒 IGFBP3 蛋白
IGFBP5 (Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 5): IGFBP5 抗体 IGFBP5 ELISA试剂盒 IGFBP5 蛋白
MAPK14 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14): MAPK14 抗体 MAPK14 ELISA试剂盒 MAPK14 蛋白
MMP14 (Matrix Metallopeptidase 14 (Membrane-inserted)): MMP14 抗体 MMP14 ELISA试剂盒 MMP14 蛋白
MDM2 (Mdm2, p53 E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase Homolog (Mouse)): MDM2 抗体 MDM2 ELISA试剂盒 MDM2 蛋白
mTOR - MTOR: mTOR 抗体 mTOR ELISA试剂盒 mTOR 蛋白
MAP2K1 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 1): MAP2K1 抗体 MAP2K1 ELISA试剂盒 MAP2K1 蛋白
MAP2K3 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3): MAP2K3 抗体 MAP2K3 ELISA试剂盒 MAP2K3 蛋白
PTEN (Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog): PTEN 抗体    
SERPINB2 (Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 2): SERPINB2 抗体 SERPINB2 ELISA试剂盒 SERPINB2 蛋白
PLAT (Plasminogen Activator, Tissue): PLAT 抗体 PLAT ELISA试剂盒 PLAT 蛋白
PLAU (Plasminogen Activator, Urokinase): PLAU 抗体 PLAU ELISA试剂盒 PLAU 蛋白
PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen): PCNA 抗体 PCNA ELISA试剂盒 PCNA 蛋白
RB1CC1 (RB1-Inducible Coiled-Coil 1): RB1CC1 抗体    
RB1 - Retinoblastoma 1: RB1 抗体 RB1 ELISA试剂盒 RB1 蛋白
SPARC (Secreted Protein, Acidic, Cysteine-Rich (Osteonectin)): SPARC 抗体 SPARC ELISA试剂盒 SPARC 蛋白
SERPINE1 (serpin Peptidase Inhibitor, Clade E (Nexin, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1), Member 1): SERPINE1 抗体 SERPINE1 ELISA试剂盒 SERPINE1 蛋白
SMAD4 (SMAD Family Member 4): SMAD4 抗体 SMAD4 ELISA试剂盒 SMAD4 蛋白
SMAD3 (SMAD, Mothers Against DPP Homolog 3): SMAD3 抗体 SMAD3 ELISA试剂盒 SMAD3 蛋白
TEP1 (Telomerase-Associated Protein 1): TEP1 抗体 TEP1 ELISA试剂盒  
THBS1 - Thrombospondin 1: THBS1 抗体 THBS1 ELISA试剂盒 THBS1 蛋白
TGFB1 (Transforming Growth Factor, beta 1): TGFB1 抗体 TGFB1 ELISA试剂盒 TGFB1 蛋白
TNFSF15 (Tumor Necrosis Factor (Ligand) Superfamily, Member 15): TNFSF15 抗体 TNFSF15 ELISA试剂盒 TNFSF15 蛋白
TP53 - p53: TP53 抗体 TP53 ELISA试剂盒 TP53 蛋白
BRAF (V-Raf Murine Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog B1): BRAF 抗体 BRAF ELISA试剂盒 BRAF 蛋白
SRC (V-Src Sarcoma (Schmidt-Ruppin A-2) Viral Oncogene Homolog (Avian)): SRC 抗体 SRC ELISA试剂盒 SRC 蛋白
VTN - Vitronectin: VTN 抗体 VTN ELISA试剂盒 VTN 蛋白

Interferon mediated Regulation

IFNG (Interferon gamma):

This gene encodes a member of the type II interferon family. The protein encoded is a soluble cytokine with antiviral, immunoregulatory and anti-tumor properties and is a potent activator of macrophages. Mutations in this gene are associated with aplastic anemia.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009].   更多...
IRF1 (Interferon Regulatory Factor 1): IRF1 抗体 IRF1 ELISA试剂盒 IRF1 蛋白
IRF5 (Interferon Regulatory Factor 5): IRF5 抗体 IRF5 ELISA试剂盒 IRF5 蛋白
IRF7 (Interferon Regulatory Factor 7): IRF7 抗体 IRF7 ELISA试剂盒 IRF7 蛋白
IFI27 - Interferon, alpha-Inducible Protein 27: IFI27 抗体 IFI27 ELISA试剂盒 IFI27 蛋白
IFNB1 (Interferon, beta 1, Fibroblast): IFNB1 抗体 IFNB1 ELISA试剂盒 IFNB1 蛋白
IFI16 (Interferon, gamma-Inducible Protein 16): IFI16 抗体 IFI16 ELISA试剂盒 IFI16 蛋白
IL1A (Interleukin 1 alpha): IL1A 抗体 IL1A ELISA试剂盒 IL1A 蛋白
IL1B (Interleukin 1, beta): IL1B 抗体 IL1B ELISA试剂盒 IL1B 蛋白
IL24 - Interleukin 24: IL24 抗体 IL24 ELISA试剂盒 IL24 蛋白
IL-3 (Interleukin 3): IL-3 抗体 IL-3 ELISA试剂盒 IL-3 蛋白
IL6 - Interleukin 6: IL6 抗体 IL6 ELISA试剂盒 IL6 蛋白
IL6RA (Interleukin 6 Receptor, alpha): IL6RA 抗体 IL6RA ELISA试剂盒 IL6RA 蛋白
IL6ST (Interleukin 6 Signal Transducer (Gp130, Oncostatin M Receptor)): IL6ST 抗体 IL6ST ELISA试剂盒 IL6ST 蛋白
IL8 - Interleukin 8: IL8 抗体 IL8 ELISA试剂盒 IL8 蛋白
IL6R - IL-6 Receptor: IL6R 抗体 IL6R ELISA试剂盒 IL6R 蛋白