程序化细胞死亡或细胞凋亡是多细胞生物体的重要生理过程。细胞生长分裂和细胞死亡速度之间的均衡能够根据内部或外部参数动态调整细胞数量。例如,在脊椎动物的神经系统发育过程中,大约有一半的细胞在形成后不久就凋亡。在成年生物体中,这种平衡对于保持器官和组织的大小和功能等非常重要。此类平衡调节异常时常会导致癌症。细胞凋亡与细胞坏死不同。细胞坏死是指受影响的细胞破裂后,导致可能的损害性炎症反应,而细胞凋亡呈现为非常有组织的方式:细胞收缩凝集,内部结构分解,DNA 断裂为碎片。然后,周围的细胞或巨噬细胞迅速吞噬死亡细胞。

凋亡过程的核心是 caspase,一种半胱氨酸蛋白酶家族。它们生成为酶前体,由其他 caspase 转化为活性后裂解。当起始酶前体(例如酶前体 8、9、10)在接头蛋白的帮助下聚合时,触发此 caspase 级联反应,从而促进相互激活,减少低蛋白酶活性或酶前体构象变化的影响。已激活的 caspase 之后自由激活效应 caspase(例如 caspase 3、6 和 7),促进细胞凋亡。它们的效果进一步受 Bcl-2 家族蛋白质(例如 Bcl-2、Bcl-xL)和 IAP(细胞凋亡抑制剂,例如 BIRC1、XIAP)控制。

细胞凋亡过程遵循若干途径。外源性死亡受体途径通过配体诱导,这些配体结合到含有胞质死亡域的死亡受体蛋白家族(例如 FAS 和 TRAIL 受体)。内源性途径则是响应 DNA 损坏或线粒体应力,与癌症特别相关。除了这些标准细胞凋亡途径外,还有 caspase 非依赖性途径,由粒酶 B 和粒酶 A 等触发。这些 caspase 非依赖性途径已针对抑制 caspase 的病毒产生进化。

Download pathway image as PDF


CASP9 - Caspase 9

This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. This protein is processed...   更多...

CASP3 - Caspase 3

CASP8 - Caspase 8



BCL2 (B-Cell CLL/lymphoma 2):

This gene encodes an integral outer mitochondrial membrane protein that blocks the apoptotic death of some cells such as lymphocytes. Constitutive expression of BCL2, such as in the case of translocation of BCL2 to Ig heavy chain locus, is thought to be the cause of follicular lymphoma. Two transcript variants, produced by alternate splicing, differ in their C-terminal ends. [provided by...   更多...

BCL2L1 (BCL2-Like 1):

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the BCL-2 protein family. BCL-2 family members form hetero- or homodimers and act as anti- or pro-apoptotic regulators that are involved in a wide variety of cellular activities. The proteins encoded by this gene are located at the outer mitochondrial membrane, and have been shown to regulate outer mitochondrial membrane channel (VDAC) opening. VDAC...   更多...
BAK1 (BCL2-Antagonist/killer 1): BAK1 抗体 BAK1 ELISA试剂盒 BAK1 蛋白
BAD (BCL2-Associated Agonist of Cell Death): BAD 抗体 BAD ELISA试剂盒 BAD 蛋白
BAX (BCL2-Associated X Protein): BAX 抗体 BAX ELISA试剂盒 BAX 蛋白
BID (BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist): BID 抗体 BID ELISA试剂盒 BID 蛋白
CYCS - Cytochrome C: CYCS 抗体 CYCS ELISA试剂盒 CYCS 蛋白
DIABLO (Second Mitochondria-Derived Activator of Caspase): DIABLO 抗体 DIABLO ELISA试剂盒 DIABLO 蛋白

Inhibitor of Apoptosis

BIRC2 (Baculoviral IAP Repeat Containing 2):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of proteins that inhibits apoptosis by binding to tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors TRAF1 and TRAF2, probably by interfering with activation of ICE-like proteases. This encoded protein inhibits apoptosis induced by serum deprivation and menadione, a potent inducer of free radicals. Alternatively spliced transcript variants...   更多...

NAIP (NLR Family, Apoptosis Inhibitory Protein):

XIAP (X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis):

BIRC3 (Baculoviral IAP Repeat Containing 3): BIRC3 抗体 BIRC3 ELISA试剂盒 BIRC3 蛋白
BIRC5 (Baculoviral IAP Repeat-Containing 5): BIRC5 抗体 BIRC5 ELISA试剂盒 BIRC5 蛋白
EPR1 (Early-Phytochrome-Responsive1):      


FASL (Fas Ligand (TNF Superfamily, Member 6)):

TNFSF12 (Tumor Necrosis Factor (Ligand) Superfamily, Member 12):

TNF - Tumor Necrosis Factor

TNFRSF1B (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 1B):

CRADD (CASP2 and RIPK1 Domain Containing Adaptor with Death Domain): CRADD 抗体 CRADD ELISA试剂盒 CRADD 蛋白
CFLAR (CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulator): CFLAR 抗体 CFLAR ELISA试剂盒 CFLAR 蛋白
CYLD (Cylindromatosis (Turban Tumor Syndrome)): CYLD 抗体 CYLD ELISA试剂盒 CYLD 蛋白
DR4 (Drought-Repressed 4 Protein): DR4 抗体    
FAS (Fas (TNF Receptor Superfamily, Member 6)): FAS 抗体 FAS ELISA试剂盒 FAS 蛋白
FADD (Fas (TNFRSF6)-Associated Via Death Domain): FADD 抗体 FADD ELISA试剂盒 FADD 蛋白
RIPK1 (Receptor (TNFRSF)-Interacting serine-threonine Kinase 1): RIPK1 抗体 RIPK1 ELISA试剂盒 RIPK1 蛋白
TRAF1 (TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 1): TRAF1 抗体   TRAF1 蛋白
TRAF2 (TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 2): TRAF2 抗体   TRAF2 蛋白
TRAF3 (TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 3): TRAF3 抗体 TRAF3 ELISA试剂盒 TRAF3 蛋白
TRAF5 (TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 5): TRAF5 抗体 TRAF5 ELISA试剂盒 TRAF5 蛋白
TRADD (TNFRSF1A-Associated Via Death Domain): TRADD 抗体 TRADD ELISA试剂盒 TRADD 蛋白
TNFSF10 (Tumor Necrosis Factor (Ligand) Superfamily, Member 10): TNFSF10 抗体 TNFSF10 ELISA试剂盒 TNFSF10 蛋白
TNFRSF10A (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 10a): TNFRSF10A 抗体 TNFRSF10A ELISA试剂盒 TNFRSF10A 蛋白
TNFRSF10B (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 10b): TNFRSF10B 抗体 TNFRSF10B ELISA试剂盒 TNFRSF10B 蛋白
TNFRSF10C (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 10c, Decoy Without An Intracellular Domain): TNFRSF10C 抗体 TNFRSF10C ELISA试剂盒 TNFRSF10C 蛋白
TNFRSF10D (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 10d, Decoy with Truncated Death Domain): TNFRSF10D 抗体 TNFRSF10D ELISA试剂盒 TNFRSF10D 蛋白
TNFRSF12A (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 12A): TNFRSF12A 抗体 TNFRSF12A ELISA试剂盒 TNFRSF12A 蛋白
TNFRSF1A (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 1A): TNFRSF1A 抗体 TNFRSF1A ELISA试剂盒 TNFRSF1A 蛋白
TNFRSF25 (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 25): TNFRSF25 抗体 TNFRSF25 ELISA试剂盒 TNFRSF25 蛋白


YWHAQ (Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein, theta Polypeptide):

YWHAZ (Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein, zeta Polypeptide):

APAF1 (Apoptotic Peptidase Activating Factor 1): APAF1 抗体 APAF1 ELISA试剂盒 APAF1 蛋白

Endoplasmatic Reticulum

CAPNL1 (Calpain 1, Large Subunit):

The calpains, calcium-activated neutral proteases, are nonlysosomal, intracellular cysteine proteases. The mammalian calpains include ubiquitous, stomach-specific, and muscle-specific proteins. The ubiquitous enzymes consist of heterodimers with distinct large, catalytic subunits associated with a common small, regulatory subunit. This gene encodes the large subunit of the ubiquitous enzyme,...   更多...

TREX1 (three Prime Repair Exonuclease 1):

This gene encodes a nuclear protein with 3' exonuclease activity. The encoded protein may play a role in DNA repair and serve as a proofreading function for DNA polymerase. Mutations in this gene result in Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, chilblain lupus, Cree encephalitis, and other diseases of the immune system. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep...   更多...

CAPN2 (Calpain 2, (M/II) Large Subunit):

CAPNS1 - Calpain S1

NME1 (Non-Metastatic Cells 1, Protein (NM23A) Expressed in): NME1 抗体 NME1 ELISA试剂盒 NME1 蛋白
SET (SET Nuclear Oncogene): SET 抗体    


Gzmb - GZMB

Cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells share the remarkable ability to recognize, bind, and lyse specific target cells. They are thought to protect their host by lysing cells bearing on their surface 'nonself' antigens, usually peptides or proteins resulting from infection by intracellular pathogens. The protein encoded by this gene is crucial for the rapid induction of...
GZMA (Granzyme A (Granzyme 1, Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated serine Esterase 3)): GZMA 抗体 GZMA ELISA试剂盒 GZMA 蛋白
PRF1 - Perforin 1: PRF1 抗体 PRF1 ELISA试剂盒 PRF1 蛋白


PARP1 (Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1):

This gene encodes a chromatin-associated enzyme, poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase, which modifies various nuclear proteins by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. The modification is dependent on DNA and is involved in the regulation of various important cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation, and tumor transformation and also in the regulation of the molecular events involved in the recovery...   更多...

LMNA - Lamin A/C

LMNB1 - Lamin B1

AIFM1 (Apoptosis-Inducing Factor, Mitochondrion-Associated, 1): AIFM1 抗体 AIFM1 ELISA试剂盒 AIFM1 蛋白
ENDOG - Endonuclease G: ENDOG 抗体 ENDOG ELISA试剂盒 ENDOG 蛋白
DFFA (DNA Fragmentation Factor, 45kDa, alpha Polypeptide): DFFA 抗体 DFFA ELISA试剂盒 DFFA 蛋白
DFFB (DNA Fragmentation Factor, 40kDa, beta Polypeptide (Caspase-Activated DNase)): DFFB 抗体 DFFB ELISA试剂盒 DFFB 蛋白
LMNB2 - Lamin B2: LMNB2 抗体 LMNB2 ELISA试剂盒 LMNB2 蛋白
CYFIP2 (Cytoplasmic FMR1 Interacting Protein 2): CYFIP2 抗体 CYFIP2 ELISA试剂盒 CYFIP2 蛋白

DNA damage

ABL1 (C-Abl Oncogene 1, Non-Receptor tyrosine Kinase):

The ABL1 protooncogene encodes a cytoplasmic and nuclear protein tyrosine kinase that has been implicated in processes of cell differentiation, cell division, cell adhesion, and stress response. Activity of c-Abl protein is negatively regulated by its SH3 domain, and deletion of the SH3 domain turns ABL1 into an oncogene. The t(9\;22) translocation results in the head-to-tail fusion of the...   更多...

ATR (Ataxia Telangiectasia and Rad3 Related):

ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated):

CHEK1 (Checkpoint Kinase 1): CHEK1 抗体 CHEK1 ELISA试剂盒 CHEK1 蛋白
CHEK2 (Checkpoint Kinase 2): CHEK2 抗体 CHEK2 ELISA试剂盒 CHEK2 蛋白
CCNA1 - Cyclin A1: CCNA1 抗体 CCNA1 ELISA试剂盒 CCNA1 蛋白
TRIM29 (Tripartite Motif Containing 29): TRIM29 抗体   TRIM29 蛋白

Apoptosis Markers

ANXA5 - Annexin V

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the annexin family of calcium-dependent phospholipid binding proteins some of which have been implicated in membrane-related events along exocytotic and endocytotic pathways. Annexin 5 is a phospholipase A2 and protein kinase C inhibitory protein with calcium channel activity and a potential role in cellular signal transduction, inflammation, growth...   更多...

APOC1 (Apolipoprotein C-I):

KRT18 (Keratin 18):

AIFM1 (Apoptosis-Inducing Factor, Mitochondrion-Associated, 1): AIFM1 抗体 AIFM1 ELISA试剂盒 AIFM1 蛋白
BAX (BCL2-Associated X Protein): BAX 抗体 BAX ELISA试剂盒 BAX 蛋白
BCL2 (B-Cell CLL/lymphoma 2): BCL2 抗体 BCL2 ELISA试剂盒 BCL2 蛋白
CASP1 - Caspase 1: CASP1 抗体 CASP1 ELISA试剂盒 CASP1 蛋白
CASP3 - Caspase 3: CASP3 抗体 CASP3 ELISA试剂盒 CASP3 蛋白
FAS (Fas (TNF Receptor Superfamily, Member 6)): FAS 抗体 FAS ELISA试剂盒 FAS 蛋白
FASL (Fas Ligand (TNF Superfamily, Member 6)): FASL 抗体 FASL ELISA试剂盒 FASL 蛋白
CLU - Clusterin: CLU 抗体 CLU ELISA试剂盒 CLU 蛋白
TP53 - p53: TP53 抗体 TP53 ELISA试剂盒 TP53 蛋白
PARP1 (Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1): PARP1 抗体 PARP1 ELISA试剂盒 PARP1 蛋白
BIRC5 (Baculoviral IAP Repeat-Containing 5): BIRC5 抗体 BIRC5 ELISA试剂盒 BIRC5 蛋白
EPR1 (Early-Phytochrome-Responsive1):