电话:
+1 877 302 8632
传真:
+1 888 205 9894 (Toll-free)
电子邮件:
orders@antibodies-online.cn

TLR signaling

As part of the innate immune system the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway contributes to the first line of defense against microbial pathogens. The innate immune system was historically considered nonspecific in response to different invading pathogens, targeting a wide array of pathogenic organisms, including viruses, bacteria, and fungi. This paradigm substantially shifted with the discovery of the Toll receptor in Drosophila.

To date, 10 members of the family have been identified in human and 13 in mouse. Homologs have also been discovered in plants, illustrating the high-degree of conservation in this receptor class.

Different TLRs recognize specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The chemical nature of these PAMPs is highly diverse; e.g. lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of gram-negative bacteria are recognized by TLR4 while TLR5 recognizes the bacterial protein flagellin. Ligands for TLR3, 7, 8, and 9 are nucleic acids, and TLR2 is specific for lipoproteins.

Binding of a TLR ligand to the N-terminal ectodomain of a TLR prompts the formation of TLR homo- or heterodimers. Following dimerization, TLR signals are transduced via a cytoplasmic C-terminal Toll IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain to a set of adapter proteins.

Downstream, TLR signaling engages two distinct pathways in which either TRIF (TICAM2) or MyD88 are the key component. Both pathways culminate in the induction of inflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL-6, IL-12), type I interferons (IFN-alpha, IFN-beta), or apoptosis. Furthermore, TLR signaling induces dendritic cell maturation and contributes consequently to the adaptive immune response.

TLR3 is able to recognize dsDNA and reacts to viral infection. SARS-CoV-2 effectively evades the host response by manipulating the immune answer on several points. Cytokine as well as intererfon signaling ist disturbed.
More information to SARS-CoV-2 Interferon Antagonism and antibodies for key actors and inhibitors.


References

  • Cook DN. et al. Toll-like receptors in the pathogenesis of human disease. Nat Immunol 5:975-979 (2004).
  • Takeda K, Akira S: Toll-like receptors Curr Protoc Immunol (2007). Chapter 14(Unit 14):12.
  • Yamamoto M. et al. Role of adaptor TRIF in the MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway. Science. 301:640-643. (2004).
  • Toll-Like Receptor 3 Signaling via TRIF Contributes to a Protective Innate Immune Response to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Allison L. T. et al. Coronavirus Infection mBio 6(3):e00638-15. (2015). doi:10.1128/mBio.00638-15.
  • Tewodros Shibabaw et al. Role of IFN and Complements System: Innate Immunity in SARS-CoV-2 J Inflamm Res. 13: 507–518 (2020). doi: 10.2147/JIR.S267280
Selected TLR Signaling Antibodies & ELISA Kits
Product
Reactivity
Validations
Cat. No.
Quantity
Price
Reactivity Human
Validations
  • (4)
Cat. No. ABIN184812
Quantity 100 μg
Price $410.72
Reactivity Mouse
Validations
  • (3)
Cat. No. ABIN964780
Quantity 100 μg
Price $658.50
Reactivity Human
Validations
  • (9)
Cat. No. ABIN5542528
Quantity 0.1 mg
Price $468.60
Reactivity Human
Validations
  • (5)
Cat. No. ABIN185362
Quantity 100 μg
Price $410.72
Reactivity Human
Validations
  • (1)
  • (2)
Cat. No. ABIN2855929
Quantity 100 μL
Price $509.08
Reactivity Cow, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Opossum, Rat
Validations
  • (2)
Cat. No. ABIN960372
Quantity 100 μg
Price $567.97

Toll-Like Receptors

Coreceptors

Adapters

MYD88 (Myeloid Differentiation Primary Response Gene (88)):

TICAM2 (Toll-Like Receptor Adaptor Molecule 2):

TIRAP (Toll-Interleukin 1 Receptor (TIR) Domain Containing Adaptor Protein):

TICAM1 (Toll-Like Receptor Adaptor Molecule 1):

Inhibitors

IRAK3 (Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase 3):

SOCS1 (Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1):

TNFAIP3 (Tumor Necrosis Factor, alpha-Induced Protein 3):

TAX1BP1 (Tax1 (Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type I) Binding Protein 1):

TANK (TRAF Family Member-Associated NFKB Activator):

PTPN1 (Protein tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1):

SARM1 (Sterile alpha and TIR Motif Containing 1):

Transducer

IRAK4 (Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase 4):

TRAF3 (TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 3):

TRAF6 (TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6):

IRAK1 (Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase 1):

IRAK2 (Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase 2):

RIPK1 (Receptor (TNFRSF)-Interacting serine-threonine Kinase 1):

TAB1 (TGF-beta Activated Kinase 1/MAP3K7 Binding Protein 1):

TAB2 (TGF-beta Activated Kinase 1/MAP3K7 Binding Protein 2):

TAB3 (TGF-beta Activated Kinase 1/MAP3K7 Binding Protein 3):

NF-kappaB

IKBKB (Inhibitor of kappa Light Polypeptide Gene Enhancer in B-Cells, Kinase beta):

IKBKG (Inhibitor of kappa Light Polypeptide Gene Enhancer in B-Cells, Kinase gamma):

NFKB1 (Nuclear Factor of kappa Light Polypeptide Gene Enhancer in B-Cells 1):

NFKBIA (Nuclear Factor of kappa Light Polypeptide Gene Enhancer in B-Cells Inhibitor, alpha):

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases

MAP3K1 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 1):

MAP3K7 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 7):

MAP2K3 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3):

MAP2K4 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 4):

MAP2K6 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 6):

MAP2K7 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 7):

CREB1 (cAMP Responsive Element Binding Protein 1):

MAPK10 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 10):

Interferon Regulatory Factors

IRF7 (Interferon Regulatory Factor 7):

IRF3 (Interferon Regulatory Factor 3):

IRF5 (Interferon Regulatory Factor 5):

Cell Survival

PIK3CA (Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase, Catalytic, alpha Polypeptide):

AKT1 (V-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 1):

AKT2 (V-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 2):

AKT3 (V-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 3 (Protein Kinase B, Gamma)):

Apoptosis

Inflammatory Cytokines and Interferones

You are here:
客服