The Global Phosphorylation Landscape of SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) belongs to the enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses. In the ongoing pandemic no vaccine has been approved as of yet. The Phosphorylation Landscape of SARS-CoV-2 Infection presented here is a step towards a deeper understanding of virus-host relationship and vaccine development.1

During a COVID-19 infection both, host and viral proteins, undergo major changes in phosphorylation. The virus tries to alter activities of e.g. kinases in order to influence cellular signaling to its benefits. The map on the left is based on the SARS-CoV-2 virus-host protein-protein interaction map of Gordon et al.2 and shows 40 human proteins which are significantly differentially phosphorylated across infection at least two time points. Viral proteins are shown as green diamonds. Interacting human proteins are shown as gray or respectively dark grey circles . PHs emanate from human proteins, colored by change compared with uninfected control samples (red, increase; blue, decrease) at each time point (0, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h after infection) in a clockwise fashion.

The SARS-CoV-2 N protein is known to interact with several RNA-processing proteins that are differentially phosphorylated during infection, including LARP1 and RRP9. Here LARP1 phosphorylation decreases on several sites, which is known to consequently increase LARP1 affinity for 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNAs encoding ribosomal proteins, driving inhibition of human protein synthesis.3 In addition, Nsp8 interacts with LARP7 and MEPCE which are important regulators of RNA polymerase II-mediated transcription elongation as part of the 7SK small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP) complex. Their phosphorylation may influence positive transcription elongation factor b (PTEFb [CDK9]) and transcriptional regulation of the virus.4

10 of the 40 interacting proteins are kinases, a decrease in activity for MARK2 and PRKACA were observed while CK2 shows increased activity. The changes in kinase activity offer insights into the biology of viral infection and possible attack points to fight an infection. Therefore kinases are predestined as drug targets and further research may lead to  development of novel therapeutics relevant for future virus pandemics.

SARS-CoV-2 Structural Proteins: SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein, SARS-CoV-2 N Protein, SARS-CoV-2 E Protein, SARS-CoV-2 M Protein,

SARS-CoV Viral Proteins: , , , , , , ,

All SARS-CoV-2 Non-Structural Proteins: SARS-CoV-2 Non-Structural Proteins

SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies: anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies


  1.  Bouhaddou et al.The Global Phosphorylation Landscape of SARS-CoV-2 Infection, Cell (2020),
  2. David E. Gordon, Gwendolyn M. Jang, Mehdi Bouhaddou, Jiewei Xu, Kirsten Obernier, Matthew J. O’Meara, Jeffrey Z. Guo, Danielle L. Swaney, Tia A. Tummino, Ruth Huettenhain, Robyn M. Kaake, Alicia L. Richards, Beril Tutuncuoglu, Helene Foussard, Jyoti Batra, N. J. K. A SARS-CoV-2-Human Protein-Protein Interaction Map Reveals Drug Targets and Potential Drug Repurposing. Nature. (2020).
  3. Hong, S., Freeberg, M.A., Han, T., Kamath, A., Yao, Y., Fukuda, T., Suzuki, T., Kim, J.K., and Inoki, K. . LARP1 functions as a molecular switch for mTORC1-mediated translation of an essential class of mRNAs. (2017) eLife 6, e25237.
  4. Mbonye, U.R., Wang, B., Gokulrangan, G., Chance, M.R., and Karn, J. . Phosphorylation of HEXIM1 at Tyr271 and Tyr274 Promotes Release of PTEFb from the 7SK snRNP Complex and Enhances Proviral HIV Gene Expression. Proteomics 15, 2078–2086. (2015)

SARS-CoV-2 Virus-Human Interacting Proteins

LARP1 (La Ribonucleoprotein Domain Family, Member 1): LARP1 抗体   LARP1 蛋白
MARK1 (MAP/microtubule Affinity-Regulating Kinase 1): MARK1 抗体 MARK1 ELISA试剂盒 MARK1 蛋白
MARK2 - MAP/microtubule Affinity-Regulating Kinase 2: MARK2 抗体   MARK2 蛋白
PRKACA (Protein Kinase A, alpha): PRKACA 抗体 PRKACA ELISA试剂盒 PRKACA 蛋白
PRKAR2A - Protein Kinase, CAMP-Dependent, Regulatory, Type II, alpha: PRKAR2A 抗体   PRKAR2A 蛋白
PRKAR2B - Protein Kinase, CAMP-Dependent, Regulatory, Type II, beta: PRKAR2B 抗体 PRKAR2B ELISA试剂盒 PRKAR2B 蛋白
RRP9 - Ribosomal RNA Processing 9, Small Subunit (SSU) Processome Component, Homolog (Yeast): RRP9 抗体   RRP9 蛋白
APOL2 - Apolipoprotein L 2: APOL2 抗体 APOL2 ELISA试剂盒 APOL2 蛋白
ATP13A3 (ATPase Type 13A3): ATP13A3 抗体    
BRD2 (Bromodomain Containing 2): BRD2 抗体   BRD2 蛋白
CENPF (Centromere Protein F): CENPF 抗体 CENPF ELISA试剂盒  
CCL11 (Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 11):      
CCL13 - Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 13: CCL13 抗体 CCL13 ELISA试剂盒 CCL13 蛋白
CCL2 - Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 2: CCL2 抗体 CCL2 ELISA试剂盒 CCL2 蛋白
CCL20 (Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 20): CCL20 抗体 CCL20 ELISA试剂盒 CCL20 蛋白
CLCC1 - Chloride Channel CLIC-Like 1: CLCC1 抗体 CLCC1 ELISA试剂盒 CLCC1 蛋白
CIT (Citron (Rho-Interacting, serine/threonine Kinase 21)): CIT 抗体   CIT 蛋白
CCDC86 - Coiled-Coil Domain Containing 86: CCDC86 抗体 CCDC86 ELISA试剂盒 CCDC86 蛋白
CRTC3 (CREB Regulated Transcription Coactivator 3): CRTC3 抗体 CRTC3 ELISA试剂盒 CRTC3 蛋白
DNMT1 - DNA (Cytosine-5)-Methyltransferase 1: DNMT1 抗体 DNMT1 ELISA试剂盒 DNMT1 蛋白
ERC1 (ELKS/RAB6-Interacting/CAST Family Member 1): ERC1 抗体 ERC1 ELISA试剂盒 ERC1 蛋白
HECTD1 (HECT Domain Containing 1): HECTD1 抗体   HECTD1 蛋白
HDAC2 - Histone Deacetylase 2: HDAC2 抗体 HDAC2 ELISA试剂盒 HDAC2 蛋白
LARP4B (La Ribonucleoprotein Domain Family, Member 4B): LARP4B 抗体    
LARP7 (La Ribonucleoprotein Domain Family, Member 7): LARP7 抗体 LARP7 ELISA试剂盒 LARP7 蛋白
MPHOSPH10 - M-Phase phosphoprotein 10 (U3 Small Nucleolar Ribonucleoprotein): MPHOSPH10 抗体 MPHOSPH10 ELISA试剂盒 MPHOSPH10 蛋白
MAP7D1 (MAP7 Domain Containing 1): MAP7D1 抗体    
MEPCE (Methylphosphate Capping Enzyme): MEPCE 抗体 MEPCE ELISA试剂盒 MEPCE 蛋白
MIB1 - Mindbomb E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase 1: MIB1 抗体   MIB1 蛋白
MYCBP2 (MYC Binding Protein 2): MYCBP2 抗体    
NKAP (NFKB Activating Protein): NKAP 抗体 NKAP ELISA试剂盒 NKAP 蛋白
NEK9 - NIMA (Never in Mitosis Gene A)- Related Kinase 9: NEK9 抗体 NEK9 ELISA试剂盒 NEK9 蛋白
NUP210 (Nucleoporin 210kDa): NUP210 抗体   NUP210 蛋白
NUP214 (Nucleoporin 214kDa): NUP214 抗体 NUP214 ELISA试剂盒  
PKP2 - Plakophilin 2: PKP2 抗体 PKP2 ELISA试剂盒  
PLEKHA5 (Pleckstrin Homology Domain Containing, Family A Member 5): PLEKHA5 抗体    
SUN2 (Sad1 and UNC84 Domain Containing 2): SUN2 抗体   SUN2 蛋白
SNIP1 (Smad Nuclear Interacting Protein 1): SNIP1 抗体 SNIP1 ELISA试剂盒 SNIP1 蛋白
STOML2 (Stomatin (EPB72)-Like 2): STOML2 抗体 STOML2 ELISA试剂盒 STOML2 蛋白
TOR1AIP1 (Torsin A Interacting Protein 1): TOR1AIP1 抗体   TOR1AIP1 蛋白
UBAP2L (Ubiquitin Associated Protein 2-Like): UBAP2L 抗体    
ZC3H18 (Zinc Finger CCCH-Type Containing 18):      
ZDHHC5 (Zinc Finger, DHHC-Type Containing 5): ZDHHC5 抗体