ACE Inhibitor Pathway

Angiotensin-converting enzyme, or ACE, is a central component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which controls blood pressure by regulating the volume of fluids in the body. ACE inhibitors are of medical use as treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

The pathway is centred around angiotensinogen, its conversion to angiotensin I (Ang I) by renin and the subsequent conversion to angiotensin II (Ang II) by angiotensin converting enzyme1. Ang II activates the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTR1) to induce aldosterone synthesis ultimately increasing blood pressure. ACE, the angiotensin converting enzyme, is mainly tissue bound at the plasma membrane. ACE converts Angiotensin I by the removal of 2 amino acids to angiotensin II. ACE inhibitors target the ACE gene product resulting in downstream reduction of Ang II, therefore decreasing aldosterone secretion. The inhibitors increase bradykinin signaling inducing vasodilation with nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) as well2. Along with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), which target AGTR1on cardiac and vascular cells, also resulting in lower levels of aldosterone and lower blood pressure. ARBs are selective for AGTR1 and do not bind to AGTR2. AGTR2 acts as a counterpart to AGTR1mediated signaling, diminishing potentially harmful effects3.

Angiotensin signaling downstream of AGTR1 can occur through several different pathways, as the receptor binds a variety of other proteins; not all functions for them in AgtII signaling via AGTR1 are yet discovered. Examples are the modulation of intracellular calcium, but also via 12-lipoxygenase, PKC and src kinase family routes.AGTR1 can interact with Jak2 thus prompting the Jak-Stat signaling. Downstream signalling is not fully pictured in this graphic. Atgr1, phosphorylated by PKC or specific GPCR kinases, binds beta-arrestin proteins (Arbb). This promotes receptor internalization or receptor recycling, leading to termination or stimulation of the signal, respectively.

AGTR1 mediated signaling stimulates the synthesis of aldosterone and is the main reason for blood pressure decrease. Calcium stimulates calmodulin dependent protein kinase leading to phosphorylation of transcription factors with a role in aldosterone synthesis and release4. They promote enzymes like hydroxylase cytochrome P450 (CYP11B2) involved in aldosterone biosynthesis. Aldosterone itself binds to the mineralocorticoid receptor NR3C2 resulting in its translocation to the cell nucleus, homodimerization and binding to hormone response elements present in the promoter of genes, crucial for transepithelial sodium transport, like epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) or Na+/K+ pumps. This creates a concentration gradient which results in reabsorption of sodium (Na+) ions and water (which follows sodium) into the blood, and secreting potassium (K+) ions into the urine.

Additional information: SARS-CoV-2 Protein Interactome


  1. Belova LA, (2000): “Angiotensin II-generating enzymes.”. Biochemistry (Mosc), 65(12): 1337-45 [PMID: 11173502]
  2. Taddei S (2016): “Unraveling the Pivotal Role of Bradykinin in ACE Inhibitor Activity.” Am J Cardiovasc Drugs, 16(5):309-21[PMID: 27260014]
  3. Villela D (2015): "Angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and receptor Mas: a complex liaison.” Clin Sci, 128(4):227-34 [PMID: 25328009]
  4. Basset MH (2004): “The regulation of aldosterone synthase expression.” Mol Cell endocrinol, 217(1-2):67-74.. [PMID: 15134803]

Angiotensin Signaling

AGT (Angiotensinogen (serpin Peptidase Inhibitor, Clade A, Member 8)): AGT 抗体 AGT ELISA试剂盒 AGT 蛋白
ACE2 (Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2): ACE2 抗体 ACE2 ELISA试剂盒 ACE2 蛋白
ACE - Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 1: ACE 抗体 ACE ELISA试剂盒 ACE 蛋白
Ang II - Angiotensin II: Ang II 抗体 Ang II ELISA试剂盒 Ang II 蛋白
CYP11B2 (Cytochrome P450, Family 11, Subfamily B, Polypeptide 2): CYP11B2 抗体 CYP11B2 ELISA试剂盒 CYP11B2 蛋白

Bradykinin Signaling

NOS3 - ENOS: NOS3 抗体 NOS3 ELISA试剂盒 NOS3 蛋白
NANOS3 (Nanos Homolog 3): NANOS3 抗体    
KNG1 - Kininogen 1: KNG1 抗体 KNG1 ELISA试剂盒 KNG1 蛋白


ATP6AP2 (ATPase, H+ Transporting, Lysosomal Accessory Protein 2): ATP6AP2 抗体 ATP6AP2 ELISA试剂盒 ATP6AP2 蛋白
NR3C2 (Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 3, Group C, Member 2): NR3C2 抗体 NR3C2 ELISA试剂盒 NR3C2 蛋白
MAS1 (MAS1 Oncogene): MAS1 抗体 MAS1 ELISA试剂盒 MAS1 蛋白
BDKRB2 (Bradykinin Receptor B2): BDKRB2 抗体 BDKRB2 ELISA试剂盒 BDKRB2 蛋白
BDKRB1 (Bradykinin Receptor B1): BDKRB1 抗体 BDKRB1 ELISA试剂盒 BDKRB1 蛋白
AGTR2 - Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor: AGTR2 抗体 AGTR2 ELISA试剂盒 AGTR2 蛋白
AGTR1a (Angiotensin II Receptor, Type 1a): AGTR1a 抗体    
AGTR1 - Angiotensin II Type-1 Receptor: AGTR1 抗体 AGTR1 ELISA试剂盒 AGTR1 蛋白

Serine proteases