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PACAP (显示 MZB1 蛋白) stimulates secretoneurin (显示 SCG2 蛋白) release and secretogranin II (显示 SCG2 蛋白) gene transcription in bovine adrenochromaffin cells
High level of co-expression of PACAP with VIP (显示 Vip 蛋白), SP and CGRP (显示 CALCA 蛋白) in the distal ganglia of the vagus sensory perikarya directly implicates studied peptides in their functional interaction during nociceptive vagal transduction.
Results have suggested that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP (显示 Vip 蛋白)), but predominantly VIP (显示 Vip 蛋白), induce neuroblastoma (显示 ARHGEF16 蛋白) differentiation into benign form by regulating hypoxia-inducible factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (显示 VEGF 蛋白) and vascular endothelial growth factor (显示 VEGF 蛋白) receptor (显示 RYK 蛋白) expression and distribution.
human migraine models have shed light on the importance of PACAP38 in the pathophysiology of primary headaches
PACAP stimulated repairing of corneal endothelium lesion as shown by wound healing analysis.
Study indicates that both exogenous and endogenous pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide plays a regulatory role in small intestinal cells, but this is restricted to certain conditions, such as type of stressor and timing of application.
Some abnormalities of the PACAP system are evident in the brains of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome infants.
Study found that interictal serum PACAP levels are not increased (or decreased) in a large series of chronic migraine women when compared to matched controls without a headache history
Study found a protective effect of PACAP-38 on oxidative stress damage in zebrafish hair cells, suggesting PACAP-38 ability to prevent hair cells from apoptosis. PACAP-38 treatment decreased the cleaved caspase-3 (显示 CASP3 蛋白) level in the hair cells, but somewhat unexpectedly had no influence on p-38 MAPK (显示 MAPK1 蛋白) pathway. PACAP-38 treatment also rescued H2O2-induced reduction in movement.
An association was found in a common variant of the PACAP receptor in patients with cluster headache.
PACAP-38 is released in plasma during attacks of episodic cluster headache patients.
Hypermethylation of ADCYAP1 gene may be highly associated with the development of cervical cancer.
Low PACAP expression is associated with increased number of severely damaged sperms.
results suggest that IL-6 (显示 IL6 蛋白) gene requires up-regulation of phospho-JAK2 (显示 JAK2 蛋白)/STAT3 (显示 STAT3 蛋白), PACAP, and PAC1R (显示 ADCYAP1R1 蛋白) and down-regulation of the TNF-alpha (显示 TNF 蛋白) gene to modulate its anticonvulsive/neuroprotective potential
The data presented here shows PACAP38 transport is temporally altered following controlled cortical impact -treatment and PACAP38 uptake is greater in the cerebellum compared to the cortices
This study shown the model of depression in PACAP mutation mice.
PACAP/PAC1 (显示 ADCYAP1R1 蛋白) signaling is important for light regulated behavior, VIP (显示 Vip 蛋白)/VPAC2 (显示 VIPR2 蛋白) signaling for stable clock function and both signaling pathways may play a role in shaping diurnality versus nocturnality.
Results suggests that PACAP regulates a bidirectional interaction between the adult neural progenitor cells and their niche: PACAP modifies extracellular matrix production and remodeling, in turn the extracellular matrix regulates progenitor cell adherence. PACAP may in this manner help restrict adult neural progenitors to the stem cell niche in vivo.
age-related changes were observed in the PACAP KO mice only. These alterations included horizontal and rod bipolar cell dendritic sprouting into the photoreceptor layer and decreased ganglion cell number. Also, Muller glial cells showed elevated GFAP (显示 GFAP 蛋白) expression compared to the aging WT retinas.
Mice lacking endogenous PACAP have slower weight gain during the first weeks of development and slower neurobehavioral development.
Study investigated effects of chronic variable mild stress (CVMS) in non-injected, vehicle and imipramine-treated KO mice vs. wildtype (WT) counterparts and mapped the CVMS-related FosB (显示 FOSB 蛋白) response in 18 brain areas; found that PACAP deficiency affects neuronal reactivity in a brain area-specific manner in stress centers
Backup mechanisms maintain PACAP/VIP (显示 Vip 蛋白)-induced arterial vasodilation in PACAP-deficient mice.
The temporal and spatial expression pattern of the ghrh-pacap1 transcript suggests that thise hormones may modulate patterning during development.
expression of transcripts for PACAP (显示 VIPR2 蛋白) and its receptors by 0.5-6 hpf make both PACAP1 and PACAP2 candidates for factors that influence brain development
study reveals the distribution of immunoreactive GHRH (显示 GHRH 蛋白)-like peptide in structures of the zebrafish brain; results suggest involvement of GHRH (显示 GHRH 蛋白)-LP in both neuroendocrine and feeding-associated nervous circuits
This gene encodes a secreted proprotein that is further processed into multiple mature peptides. These peptides stimulate adenylate cyclase and increase cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels, resulting in the transcriptional activation of target genes. The products of this gene are key mediators of neuroendocrine stress responses. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.
glucagon family neuropeptides
, growth hormone-releasing hormone
, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide
, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide
, adenylate cyclase activating peptide, pituitary 1
, adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 (pituitary)
, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1
, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide precursor (Pacap)
, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide, PACAP