TLR signaling

As part of the innate immune system the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway contributes to the first line of defense against microbial pathogens. The innate immune system was historically considered nonspecific in response to different invading pathogens, targeting a wide array of pathogenic organisms, including viruses, bacteria, and fungi. This paradigm substantially shifted with the discovery of the Toll receptor in Drosophila.

To date, 10 members of the family have been identified in human and 13 in mouse. Homologs have also been discovered in plants, illustrating the high-degree of conservation in this receptor class.

Different TLRs recognize specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The chemical nature of these PAMPs is highly diverse; e.g. lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of gram-negative bacteria are recognized by TLR4 while TLR5 recognizes the bacterial protein flagellin. Ligands for TLR3, 7, 8, and 9 are nucleic acids, and TLR2 is specific for lipoproteins.

Binding of a TLR ligand to the N-terminal ectodomain of a TLR prompts the formation of TLR homo- or heterodimers. Following dimerization, TLR signals are transduced via a cytoplasmic C-terminal Toll IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain to a set of adapter proteins.

Downstream, TLR signaling engages two distinct pathways in which either TRIF (TICAM2) or MyD88 are the key component. Both pathways culminate in the induction of inflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL-6, IL-12), type I interferons (IFN-alpha, IFN-beta), or apoptosis. Furthermore, TLR signaling induces dendritic cell maturation and contributes consequently to the adaptive immune response.

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Toll-Like Receptors

TLR4 (Toll-Like Receptor 4):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. TLRs are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and share structural and functional similarities. They recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns that are expressed on infectious agents, and mediate the production...   更多...

TLR2 (Toll-Like Receptor 2):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and...

TLR3 (Toll-Like Receptor 3):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and...
此分类里的别的抗原:
TLR1 (Toll-Like Receptor 1): TLR1 抗体 TLR1 ELISA试剂盒 TLR1 蛋白
TLR5 (Toll-Like Receptor 5): TLR5 抗体 TLR5 ELISA试剂盒 TLR5 蛋白
TLR6 (Toll-Like Receptor 6): TLR6 抗体 TLR6 ELISA试剂盒 TLR6 蛋白
TLR7 (Toll-Like Receptor 7): TLR7 抗体 TLR7 ELISA试剂盒 TLR7 蛋白
TLR8 (Toll-Like Receptor 8): TLR8 抗体 TLR8 ELISA试剂盒 TLR8 蛋白
TLR9 (Toll-Like Receptor 9): TLR9 抗体 TLR9 ELISA试剂盒 TLR9 蛋白
TLR10 (Toll-Like Receptor 10): TLR10 抗体 TLR10 ELISA试剂盒 TLR10 蛋白

Coreceptors

LY96 (Lymphocyte Antigen 96):

This gene encodes a protein which associates with toll-like receptor 4 on the cell surface and confers responsiveness to lipopolysaccyaride (LPS),...

CD36 (CD36 Molecule (thrombospondin Receptor)):

The protein encoded by this gene is the fourth major glycoprotein of the platelet surface and serves as a receptor for thrombospondin in platelets...
此分类里的别的抗原:
UNC93B1 (Unc-93 Homolog B1 (C. Elegans)): UNC93B1 抗体 UNC93B1 ELISA试剂盒  
CD14 (CD14 Molecule): CD14 抗体 CD14 ELISA试剂盒 CD14 蛋白
LBP (Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein): LBP 抗体 LBP ELISA试剂盒 LBP 蛋白

Adapters

MYD88 (Myeloid Differentiation Primary Response Gene (88)):

This gene encodes a cytosolic adapter protein that plays a central role in the innate and adaptive immune response. This protein functions as an essential signal transducer in the interleukin-1 and Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. These pathways regulate that activation of numerous proinflammatory genes. The encoded protein consists of an N-terminal death domain and a C-terminal...   更多...

TICAM2 (Toll-Like Receptor Adaptor Molecule 2):

TIRP is a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (IL1R\; MIM 147810) (TIR) domain-containing adaptor protein involved in Toll receptor signaling (see TLR4\; MIM 603030).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004].   更多...
此分类里的别的抗原:
TIRAP (Toll-Interleukin 1 Receptor (TIR) Domain Containing Adaptor Protein): TIRAP 抗体 TIRAP ELISA试剂盒 TIRAP 蛋白
TICAM1 (Toll-Like Receptor Adaptor Molecule 1): TICAM1 抗体 TICAM1 ELISA试剂盒 TICAM1 蛋白

Inhibitors

IRAK3 (Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase 3):

This gene encodes a member of the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase protein family. Members of this family are essential components of the Toll/IL-R immune signal transduction pathways. This protein is primarily expressed in monocytes and macrophages and functions as a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor signaling. Mutations in this gene are associated with a susceptibility to...   更多...
此分类里的别的抗原:
SOCS1 (Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1): SOCS1 抗体 SOCS1 ELISA试剂盒 SOCS1 蛋白
TNFAIP3 (Tumor Necrosis Factor, alpha-Induced Protein 3): TNFAIP3 抗体 TNFAIP3 ELISA试剂盒 TNFAIP3 蛋白
TAX1BP1 (Tax1 (Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type I) Binding Protein 1): TAX1BP1 抗体 TAX1BP1 ELISA试剂盒 TAX1BP1 蛋白
TANK (TRAF Family Member-Associated NFKB Activator): TANK 抗体 TANK ELISA试剂盒 TANK 蛋白
PTPN1 (Protein tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1): PTPN1 抗体 PTPN1 ELISA试剂盒 PTPN1 蛋白
PTPN6 (Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase 1C): PTPN6 抗体 PTPN6 ELISA试剂盒 PTPN6 蛋白
SARM1 (Sterile alpha and TIR Motif Containing 1): SARM1 抗体   SARM1 蛋白

Transducer

IRAK4 (Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase 4):

This gene encodes a kinase that activates NF-kappaB in both the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathways. The protein is essential for most innate immune responses. Mutations in this gene result in IRAK4 deficiency and recurrent invasive pneumococcal disease. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq,...   更多...

TRAF3 (TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 3):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF) protein family. TRAF proteins associate with, and mediate...

TRAF6 (TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF) protein family. TRAF proteins are associated with, and...
此分类里的别的抗原:
TBK1 - TANK-Binding Kinase 1: TBK1 抗体 TBK1 ELISA试剂盒 TBK1 蛋白
IRAK1 (Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase 1): IRAK1 抗体 IRAK1 ELISA试剂盒 IRAK1 蛋白
IRAK2 (Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase 2): IRAK2 抗体 IRAK2 ELISA试剂盒 IRAK2 蛋白
IKBKE - Inhibitor of kappa Light Polypeptide Gene Enhancer in B-Cells, Kinase epsilon: IKBKE 抗体 IKBKE ELISA试剂盒 IKBKE 蛋白
RIPK1 (Receptor (TNFRSF)-Interacting serine-threonine Kinase 1): RIPK1 抗体 RIPK1 ELISA试剂盒 RIPK1 蛋白
TAB1 (TGF-beta Activated Kinase 1/MAP3K7 Binding Protein 1): TAB1 抗体 TAB1 ELISA试剂盒 TAB1 蛋白
TAB2 (TGF-beta Activated Kinase 1/MAP3K7 Binding Protein 2): TAB2 抗体 TAB2 ELISA试剂盒 TAB2 蛋白
TAB3 (TGF-beta Activated Kinase 1/MAP3K7 Binding Protein 3): TAB3 抗体 TAB3 ELISA试剂盒 TAB3 蛋白
ECSIT (ECSIT Homolog (Drosophila)): ECSIT 抗体 ECSIT ELISA试剂盒 ECSIT 蛋白

NF-kappaB

此分类里的别的抗原:
CHUK (conserved Helix-Loop-Helix Ubiquitous Kinase): CHUK 抗体 CHUK ELISA试剂盒 CHUK 蛋白
IKBKB (Inhibitor of kappa Light Polypeptide Gene Enhancer in B-Cells, Kinase beta): IKBKB 抗体 IKBKB ELISA试剂盒 IKBKB 蛋白
IKBKG (Inhibitor of kappa Light Polypeptide Gene Enhancer in B-Cells, Kinase gamma): IKBKG 抗体 IKBKG ELISA试剂盒 IKBKG 蛋白
NFKB1 (Nuclear Factor of kappa Light Polypeptide Gene Enhancer in B-Cells 1): NFKB1 抗体 NFKB1 ELISA试剂盒 NFKB1 蛋白
NFkBP65 - p65: NFkBP65 抗体 NFkBP65 ELISA试剂盒 NFkBP65 蛋白
NFKBIA (Nuclear Factor of kappa Light Polypeptide Gene Enhancer in B-Cells Inhibitor, alpha): NFKBIA 抗体 NFKBIA ELISA试剂盒 NFKBIA 蛋白

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases

此分类里的别的抗原:
MAP3K1 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 1): MAP3K1 抗体 MAP3K1 ELISA试剂盒 MAP3K1 蛋白
MAP3K7 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 7): MAP3K7 抗体 MAP3K7 ELISA试剂盒 MAP3K7 蛋白
MAP2K3 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3): MAP2K3 抗体 MAP2K3 ELISA试剂盒 MAP2K3 蛋白
MAP2K4 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 4): MAP2K4 抗体 MAP2K4 ELISA试剂盒 MAP2K4 蛋白
MAP2K6 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 6): MAP2K6 抗体 MAP2K6 ELISA试剂盒 MAP2K6 蛋白
MAP2K7 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 7): MAP2K7 抗体 MAP2K7 ELISA试剂盒 MAP2K7 蛋白
CREB1 (CAMP Responsive Element Binding Protein 1): CREB1 抗体 CREB1 ELISA试剂盒 CREB1 蛋白
MAPK8 - JNK: MAPK8 抗体 MAPK8 ELISA试剂盒 MAPK8 蛋白
MAPK9 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 9): MAPK9 抗体 MAPK9 ELISA试剂盒 MAPK9 蛋白
MAPK10 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 10): MAPK10 抗体 MAPK10 ELISA试剂盒 MAPK10 蛋白

Interferon Regulatory Factors

IRF7 (Interferon Regulatory Factor 7):

IRF7 encodes interferon regulatory factor 7, a member of the interferon regulatory transcription factor (IRF) family. IRF7 has been shown to play a role in the transcriptional activation of virus-inducible cellular genes, including interferon beta chain genes. Inducible expression of IRF7 is largely restricted to lymphoid tissue. Multiple IRF7 transcript variants have been identified, although...   更多...

IRF3 - Interferon Regulatory Factor 3

This gene encodes a member of the interferon regulatory transcription factor (IRF) family. The encoded protein is found in an inactive cytoplasmic...

IRF5 (Interferon Regulatory Factor 5):

This gene encodes a member of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family, a group of transcription factors with diverse roles, including...

Cell Survival

此分类里的别的抗原:
PIK3CA (Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase, Catalytic, alpha Polypeptide): PIK3CA 抗体 PIK3CA ELISA试剂盒 PIK3CA 蛋白
PIK3CG (Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase, Catalytic, gamma Polypeptide): PIK3CG 抗体 PIK3CG ELISA试剂盒 PIK3CG 蛋白
AKT1 - AKT: AKT1 抗体 AKT1 ELISA试剂盒 AKT1 蛋白
AKT2 (V-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 2): AKT2 抗体 AKT2 ELISA试剂盒 AKT2 蛋白
AKT3 (V-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 3 (Protein Kinase B, Gamma)): AKT3 抗体 AKT3 ELISA试剂盒 AKT3 蛋白

Apoptosis

此分类里的别的抗原:
FADD (Fas (TNFRSF6)-Associated Via Death Domain): FADD 抗体 FADD ELISA试剂盒 FADD 蛋白
CASP8 - Caspase 8: CASP8 抗体 CASP8 ELISA试剂盒 CASP8 蛋白