Protein Tumor Markers


什么是生物标志物

生物标志物的定义为“可在体内或其产物中进行测定的、并可影响或预测结果或疾病发生率的任何物质、结构或过程1 。 特定的生理条件是以该条件特异性物质的存在或水平改变为表征的。比如蛋白质和肽等物质很容易被测定,因此常常将它们用作生物标志物。


肿瘤诊断学中的生物标志物

肿瘤标志物属生物标志物的一个子类,用以指示癌症发展。其中的多数标志物都会在正常细胞和肿瘤细胞中产生。在各类恶性肿瘤患者身上,它们在体液如尿液、唾液或血液中的水平通常明显高于正常水平。

正在使用的肿瘤标志物有很多种,并可根据其功能、检测方式或测定样品类型进行分类23

  • 癌胚抗原
  • 肿瘤相关抗原
  • 激素和激素受体
  • 酶和同工酶
  • 血清和组织蛋白4
  • 其他肿瘤标志物,如遗传标记和生物分子

cancer types

一种完善的肿瘤标志物具有高度特异性,并能够可靠地将健康个体与癌症患者区分开来。它可能是一种通用的肿瘤标志物,也可能是某一特定恶性肿瘤的特异性肿瘤标志物。它应能够实现对早期肿瘤的早期检测,同时还可以区分肿瘤分期,并对结果和潜在复发具有预后价值。最后,它还应易于使用已有技术进行测定,以跟踪治疗期间的任何变化。

目前已确定的标志物中还没有一种能够满足上述完善肿瘤标志物愿望清单中的所有要求。通常会同时使用多种标志物,从而实现对多种不同癌症类型的可靠诊断、预后、分期和监测 5


如何测定肿瘤标志物

当前,大多数标志物均为蛋白质或肽类。因此,可以使用免疫学方法,如ELISA、免疫组织化学法、免疫荧光法、流式细胞术,或根据标志物和样品性质确定的其他方法,对它们进行定性和定量测定。

越来越多的肿瘤标志物也基于遗传变异6。表达模式的改变以及某些癌基因的突变不仅会影响恶性肿瘤的类型,而且也是治疗反应的决定因素。


cancer types

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Tumor marker related products

Marker class Marker - click antigen for available products Gene Cancer type IV
Oncofetal antigensAFPliver, germ cell tumors, ovarian, testicular
Oncofetal antigensCEACAM5esophageal, bile duct, colorectal, breast, thyroid
Oncofetal antigensCEACAM6esophageal, bile duct, colorectal, breast, thyroid
Oncofetal antigensCEACAM1esophageal, bile duct, colorectal, breast, thyroid
Oncofetal antigensCEACAM7esophageal, bile duct, colorectal, breast, thyroid
Tumor associated antigens-carcenoid
Tumor associated antigensMUC1breast
Tumor associated antigens-pancreatic, gallbladder, bile duct, gastric
Tumor associated antigensMUC1breast
Tumor associated antigens-bile duct, gastric cancer
Tumor associated antigensMUC16ovarian
Hormes and receptorsCGA, CGBchoriocarcinoma, testicular
Hormes and receptorsCalcitoninCALC1medullary thyroid cancer
Hormes and receptorsCHGAneuroendocrine tumors
Hormes and receptorsEGFR mutation analysisEGFRnon-small cell lung cancer
Hormes and receptorsESR1breast
Hormes and receptorsESR2breast
Hormes and receptorsHER2/neuERBB2breast, gastric, esophageal
Hormes and receptorsBGLAPbone
Hormes and receptorsProgesterone receptor (PR)PGRbreast
Hormes and receptorsTFRCbreast
Hormes and receptorsTTRovarian
Enzymes and modulatorsAlkaline phosphatase (BAP)ALPLbone
Enzymes and modulatorsBCR-ABL fusion geneBCR/ABL1chronic myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia
Enzymes and modulatorsBRAF V600EBRAFCutaneous melanoma and colorectal cancer
Enzymes and modulatorsKITKITgastrointestinal stromal tumor, mucosal melanoma
Enzymes and modulatorsKRAS mutation analysisKRAScolorectal, non-small cell lung cancer
Enzymes and modulatorsPSAprostate
Enzymes and modulatorsLDHAgerm cell tumors, gastric
Enzymes and modulatorsLDHBgerm cell tumors, gastric
Enzymes and modulatorsLactate dehydrogenaseLDHCgerm cell tumors, gastric
Enzymes and modulatorsENO2lung
Enzymes and modulatorsNUMA1bladder
Enzymes and modulatorsplasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1)SERPINE1breast
Enzymes and modulatorsSERPINB3esopahgeal, lung, ovarian, squamous cell carcinoma
Enzymes and modulatorsSERPINB4esopahgeal, lung, ovarian, squamous cell carcinoma
Enzymes and modulatorsPLAUbreast
Serum and tissue proteinsApolipoprotein A1APOA1ovarian
Serum and tissue proteinsB2Mmultiple myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, lymphoma
Serum and tissue proteinsKRT19breast, lung
Serum and tissue proteinsWAP5ovarian
Serum and tissue proteinsFerritinFTL, FTH1liver
Serum and tissue proteinsfibrinogen-bladder
Serum and tissue proteins-bladder
Serum and tissue proteinsS100S100A1malignant melanome
Serum and tissue proteinsTissue polypeptide antigen (TPA)-lung
Serum and tissue proteinsTGthyroid
Cancer stem cellsALDH1A1cancer stem cells, breast, colon, lung, melanoma, pancreatic, prostate
Cancer stem cellsMS4A1Cancer stem cells, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, melanoma
Cancer stem cellsCD24Cancer stem cells, colon cancer
Cancer stem cellsCD44Cancer stem cells, breast, colon, liver, ovarian, pancreatic, prostate
Cancer stem cellsNESCancer stem cells, glioma, pancreatic


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