PI3K-Akt Signaling

PI3K/Akt通路在细胞稳态、神经发育、新陈代谢及其他过程中均发挥着关键作用。它调节着细胞发育的各个方面,如细胞凋亡、细胞周期进程和细胞分化。

PI3K/Akt通路的关键调节因子为Akt/PKB——一个由三种紧密相关的丝氨酸/苏氨酸-蛋白激酶组成的家族。其中Akt1/PKBα在细胞增殖和细胞代谢中扮演着重要角色。Akt2/PKBβ对葡萄糖代谢具有十分重要的意义。而Akt3/PKBγ则是Akt家族中特征最不明显的成员,但是它主要在脑中表达,被认为主要负责调节线粒体的生物合成。

Akt突变常常会导致对这些过程的调节能力降低以及出现各种形式的癌症。Akt的过度活化还会导致醣酵解增强,从而为癌细胞的代谢转化提供支持。据研究发现,Akt与肿瘤耐药性的发展存在关联,因此它也成了临床前和临床研究的对象。然而,仅仅Akt激活本身并不足以产生癌症表型,这往往还需要其他突变参与其中。

Akt主要调节因子PI3K和PTEN的功能丧失可导致Akt过度活化。作为一个酶家族,PI3Ks可磷酸化PtdIns (Phosphatidylinositol,磷脂酰肌醇),生成3,4,5-三磷酸磷脂酰肌醇(PIP3)。当被受体酪氨酸激酶激活时,PI3K将PIP2磷酸化为PIP3,而后者随后可激活Akt信号传导。而通过将PIP3去磷酸化为PIP2,PTEN则充当着信号转导的负调控因子。

Akt

AKT1 - AKT

The serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by the AKT1 gene is catalytically inactive in serum-starved primary and immortalized fibroblasts. AKT1 and the related AKT2 are activated by platelet-derived growth factor. The activation is rapid and specific, and it is abrogated by mutations in the pleckstrin homology domain of AKT1. It was shown that the activation occurs through...   更多...
此分类里的别的抗原:
AKT2 (V-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 2): AKT2 抗体 AKT2 ELISA试剂盒 AKT2 蛋白
AKT3 (V-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 3 (Protein Kinase B, Gamma)): AKT3 抗体 AKT3 ELISA试剂盒 AKT3 蛋白

AMPA受体

GRIA1 (Glutamate Receptor, Ionotropic, AMPA 1):

Glutamate receptors are the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the mammalian brain and are activated in a variety of normal neurophysiologic processes. These receptors are heteromeric protein complexes with multiple subunits, each possessing transmembrane regions, and all arranged to form a ligand-gated ion channel. The classification of glutamate receptors is based on their...   更多...

GRIA2 (Glutamate Receptor, Ionotropic, AMPA 2):

Glutamate receptors are the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the mammalian brain and are activated in a variety of normal neurophysiologic processes. This gene product belongs to a family of glutamate receptors that are sensitive to alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA), and function as ligand-activated cation channels. These channels are assembled...   更多...
此分类里的别的抗原:
GRIA3 - Glutamate Receptor 3: GRIA3 抗体 GRIA3 ELISA试剂盒 GRIA3 蛋白
GRIA4 (Glutamate Receptor, Ionotrophic, AMPA 4): GRIA4 抗体 GRIA4 ELISA试剂盒 GRIA4 蛋白

细胞凋亡

BCL2 (B-Cell CLL/lymphoma 2):

This gene encodes an integral outer mitochondrial membrane protein that blocks the apoptotic death of some cells such as lymphocytes. Constitutive expression of BCL2, such as in the case of translocation of BCL2 to Ig heavy chain locus, is thought to be the cause of follicular lymphoma. Two transcript variants, produced by alternate splicing, differ in their C-terminal ends. [provided by...   更多...

MDM2 (Mdm2, p53 E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase Homolog (Mouse)):

This gene is a target gene of the transcription factor tumor protein p53. The encoded protein is a nuclear phosphoprotein that binds and inhibits transactivation by tumor protein p53, as part of an autoregulatory negative feedback loop. Overexpression of this gene can result in excessive inactivation of tumor protein p53, diminishing its tumor suppressor function. This protein has E3 ubiquitin...   更多...
此分类里的别的抗原:
BAD (BCL2-Associated Agonist of Cell Death): BAD 抗体 BAD ELISA试剂盒 BAD 蛋白
BAX (BCL2-Associated X Protein): BAX 抗体 BAX ELISA试剂盒 BAX 蛋白
BCL2L11 - BIM: BCL2L11 抗体 BCL2L11 ELISA试剂盒 BCL2L11 蛋白
FOXO1 (Forkhead Box O1): FOXO1 抗体 FOXO1 ELISA试剂盒 FOXO1 蛋白
TP53 - p53: TP53 抗体 TP53 ELISA试剂盒 TP53 蛋白

细胞周期

CCNA2 - Cyclin A

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance through the cell cycle. Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. In contrast to cyclin A1,...   更多...

CDKN1A (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1)):

This gene encodes a potent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. The encoded protein binds to and inhibits the activity of cyclin-CDK2 or -CDK4 complexes, and thus functions as a regulator of cell cycle progression at G1. The expression of this gene is tightly controlled by the tumor suppressor protein p53, through which this protein mediates the p53-dependent cell cycle G1 phase arrest in...   更多...
此分类里的别的抗原:
CCND1 - Cyclin D1: CCND1 抗体 CCND1 ELISA试剂盒 CCND1 蛋白
CDK2 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2): CDK2 抗体 CDK2 ELISA试剂盒 CDK2 蛋白
CDK2AP2 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 Associated Protein 2): CDK2AP2 抗体 CDK2AP2 ELISA试剂盒 CDK2AP2 蛋白
GSK3a - GSK3 alpha: GSK3a 抗体 GSK3a ELISA试剂盒 GSK3a 蛋白

细胞成活

EIF4EBP1 (Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E Binding Protein 1):

This gene encodes one member of a family of translation repressor proteins. The protein directly interacts with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), which is a limiting component of the multisubunit complex that recruits 40S ribosomal subunits to the 5' end of mRNAs. Interaction of this protein with eIF4E inhibits complex assembly and represses translation. This protein is...   更多...

RPS6KB1 (Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase, 70kDa, Polypeptide 1):

This gene encodes a member of the ribosomal S6 kinase family of serine/threonine kinases. The encoded protein responds to mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling to promote protein synthesis, cell growth, and cell proliferation. Activity of this gene has been associated with human cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed. The use of alternative translation...   更多...
此分类里的别的抗原:
ATG13 (Autophagy Related 13): ATG13 抗体 ATG13 ELISA试剂盒 ATG13 蛋白
RPS6KB2 (Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase, 70kDa, Polypeptide 2): RPS6KB2 抗体 RPS6KB2 ELISA试剂盒 RPS6KB2 蛋白

葡萄糖代

GYS1 - Glycogen Synthase 1

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the addition of glucose monomers to the growing glycogen molecule through the formation of alpha-1,4-glycoside linkages. Mutations in this gene are associated with muscle glycogen storage disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009].   更多...

PIP5K1B (Phosphatidylinositol-4-Phosphate 5-Kinase, Type I, beta):

Participates in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Mediates RAC1-dependent reorganization of actin filaments. Contributes to the activation of PLD2. Together with PIP5K1A is required after stimulation of G-protein coupled receptors for stable platelet adhesion (By similarity).   更多...
此分类里的别的抗原:
PFKFB2 (6-phosphofructo-2-Kinase/fructose-2,6-Biphosphatase 2): PFKFB2 抗体 PFKFB2 ELISA试剂盒 PFKFB2 蛋白
GSK3a - GSK3 alpha: GSK3a 抗体 GSK3a ELISA试剂盒 GSK3a 蛋白
HK2 - Hexokinase 2: HK2 抗体 HK2 ELISA试剂盒 HK2 蛋白
PIP5K1A (Phosphatidylinositol-4-Phosphate 5-Kinase, Type I, alpha): PIP5K1A 抗体   PIP5K1A 蛋白
PIP5K1C (Phosphatidylinositol-4-Phosphate 5-Kinase, Type I, gamma): PIP5K1C 抗体 PIP5K1C ELISA试剂盒 PIP5K1C 蛋白

免疫反应

GSK3a - GSK3 alpha

This gene encodes a multifunctional Ser/Thr protein kinase that is implicated in the control of several regulatory proteins including glycogen synthase, and transcription factors, such as JUN. It also plays a role in the WNT and PI3K signaling pathways, as well as regulates the production of beta-amyloid peptides associated with Alzheimer's disease. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011].   更多...

NCF1 (Neutrophil Cytosol Factor 1):

The protein encoded by this gene is a 47 kDa cytosolic subunit of neutrophil NADPH oxidase. This oxidase is a multicomponent enzyme that is activated to produce superoxide anion. Mutations in this gene have been associated with chronic granulomatous disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008].   更多...
此分类里的别的抗原:
CHUK (conserved Helix-Loop-Helix Ubiquitous Kinase): CHUK 抗体 CHUK ELISA试剂盒 CHUK 蛋白
MAP3K8 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 8): MAP3K8 抗体 MAP3K8 ELISA试剂盒 MAP3K8 蛋白

mTORC1

MLST8 (MTOR Associated Protein, LST8 Homolog (S. Cerevisiae)):

cytosolic protein similar to an insulin receptor [RGD, Feb 2006].   更多...

RPTOR - Raptor

This gene encodes a component of a signaling pathway that regulates cell growth in response to nutrient and insulin levels. The encoded protein forms a stoichiometric complex with the mTOR kinase, and also associates with eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein-1 and ribosomal protein S6 kinase. The protein positively regulates the downstream effector ribosomal protein S6 kinase, and...   更多...
此分类里的别的抗原:
DEPTOR (DEP Domain Containing MTOR-Interacting Protein): DEPTOR 抗体 DEPTOR ELISA试剂盒 DEPTOR 蛋白
FRAP1 - MTOR: FRAP1 抗体 FRAP1 ELISA试剂盒 FRAP1 蛋白

mTORC2

DEPTOR (DEP Domain Containing MTOR-Interacting Protein):

Negative regulator of the mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling pathways. Inhibits the kinase activity of both complexes (By similarity).   更多...

TNPO1 - Transportin 1

This gene encodes the beta subunit of the karyopherin receptor complex which interacts with nuclear localization signals to target nuclear proteins to the nucleus. The karyopherin receptor complex is a heterodimer of an alpha subunit which recognizes the nuclear localization signal and a beta subunit which docks the complex at nucleoporins. Alternate splicing of this gene results in two...   更多...
此分类里的别的抗原:
FRAP1 - MTOR: FRAP1 抗体 FRAP1 ELISA试剂盒 FRAP1 蛋白
MAPKAP1 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Associated Protein 1): MAPKAP1 抗体 MAPKAP1 ELISA试剂盒 MAPKAP1 蛋白
MLST8 (MTOR Associated Protein, LST8 Homolog (S. Cerevisiae)): MLST8 抗体 MLST8 ELISA试剂盒 MLST8 蛋白
PRR5 - Proline Rich 5 (Renal): PRR5 抗体 PRR5 ELISA试剂盒 PRR5 蛋白

神经发育

HTT - Huntingtin

Huntingtin is a disease gene linked to Huntington's disease, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of striatal neurons. This is thought to be caused by an expanded, unstable trinucleotide repeat in the huntingtin gene, which translates as a polyglutamine repeat in the protein product. A fairly broad range in the number of trinucleotide repeats has been identified in normal...   更多...

原代狗肾(细胞)

PDPK1 (3-phosphoinositide Dependent Protein Kinase-1):

Serine/threonine kinase required for embryonic development. Inhibits apoptosis. Acts in the insulin receptor transduction pathway which regulates cell growth and organ size, by phosphorylating and activating Akt1 and S6k. May be involved in axonal pathfinding and synaptogenesis, and in spermatogenesis.   更多...

PDK1 (Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase, Isozyme 1):

Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is a mitochondrial multienzyme complex that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate and is one of the major enzymes responsible for the regulation of homeostasis of carbohydrate fuels in mammals. The enzymatic activity is regulated by a phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycle. Phosphorylation of PDH by a specific pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK)...   更多...
此分类里的别的抗原:
PDK2 (Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase, Isozyme 2): PDK2 抗体 PDK2 ELISA试剂盒 PDK2 蛋白
PDK3 (Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase, Isozyme 3): PDK3 抗体 PDK3 ELISA试剂盒 PDK3 蛋白
PDK4 (Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase, Isozyme 4): PDK4 抗体 PDK4 ELISA试剂盒 PDK4 蛋白

PHLPP

PHLPP1 (PH Domain and Leucine Rich Repeat Protein Phosphatase 1):

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine phosphatase family. The encoded protein promotes apoptosis by dephosphorylating and inactivating the serine/threonine kinase Akt, and functions as a tumor suppressor in multiple types of cancer. Increased expression of this gene may also play a role in obesity and type 2 diabetes by interfering with Akt-mediated insulin signaling. [provided by...   更多...
此分类里的别的抗原:
PHLPP2 (PH Domain and Leucine Rich Repeat Protein Phosphatase 2): PHLPP2 抗体   PHLPP2 蛋白

PI3K

PIK3CA (Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase, Catalytic, alpha Polypeptide):

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is composed of an 85 kDa regulatory subunit and a 110 kDa catalytic subunit. The protein encoded by this gene represents the catalytic subunit, which uses ATP to phosphorylate PtdIns, PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2. This gene has been found to be oncogenic and has been implicated in cervical cancers. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008].   更多...

PIK3R5 (Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase, Regulatory Subunit 5):

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) phosphorylate the inositol ring of phosphatidylinositol at the 3-prime position, and play important roles in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, motility, survival and intracellular trafficking. The PI3Ks are divided into three classes: I, II and III, and only the class I PI3Ks are involved in oncogenesis. This gene encodes the 101 kD regulatory...   更多...
此分类里的别的抗原:
PIK3CG (Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase, Catalytic, gamma Polypeptide): PIK3CG 抗体 PIK3CG ELISA试剂盒 PIK3CG 蛋白
PIK3R6 (Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase, Regulatory Subunit 6): PIK3R6 抗体 PIK3R6 ELISA试剂盒 PIK3R6 蛋白
PI3KR5 (PI3KR5): PI3KR5 抗体    

PP2A

PPP2CA - Protein Phosphatase 2, Catalytic Subunit, alpha Isozyme

This gene encodes the phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit. Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. This gene encodes...   更多...

PPP2R4 (Protein Phosphatase 2A Activator, Regulatory Subunit 4):

Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases and is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. Protein phosphatase 2A holoenzymes are heterotrimeric proteins composed of a structural subunit A, a catalytic subunit C, and a regulatory subunit B. The regulatory subunit is encoded by a diverse set of genes that have been grouped into the B/PR55,...   更多...
此分类里的别的抗原:
MTS - Microtubule Star: MTS 抗体    
PPP2R1A (Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit A, alpha): PPP2R1A 抗体 PPP2R1A ELISA试剂盒 PPP2R1A 蛋白
PPP2R1B (Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit A, beta): PPP2R1B 抗体 PPP2R1B ELISA试剂盒 PPP2R1B 蛋白
PPP2R3A (Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit B'', alpha): PPP2R3A 抗体 PPP2R3A ELISA试剂盒  
PPP2R3C (Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit B'', gamma): PPP2R3C 抗体 PPP2R3C ELISA试剂盒 PPP2R3C 蛋白
PPP2R5A (Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit B', alpha): PPP2R5A 抗体   PPP2R5A 蛋白
PPP2R5B (Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit B', beta): PPP2R5B 抗体   PPP2R5B 蛋白
PPP2R5D (Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit B', delta): PPP2R5D 抗体   PPP2R5D 蛋白
PPP2R5E (Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit B', epsilon Isoform): PPP2R5E 抗体 PPP2R5E ELISA试剂盒 PPP2R5E 蛋白
PPP2CA - Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit B', gamma: PPP2CA 抗体   PPP2CA 蛋白
PPP2R2B (Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit B, beta): PPP2R2B 抗体   PPP2R2B 蛋白
PPP2R2C (Protein Phosphatase 2, Regulatory Subunit B, gamma): PPP2R2C 抗体   PPP2R2C 蛋白
PPP2R3B (Protein Phosphatase 2A 48 KDa Regulatory Subunit): PPP2R3B 抗体   PPP2R3B 蛋白

其他

HBXIP (Hepatitis B Virus X-Interacting Protein):

This gene encodes a protein that specifically complexes with the C-terminus of hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx). The function of this protein is to negatively regulate HBx activity and thus to alter the replication life cycle of the virus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008].   更多...

LAMTOR2 (Late Endosomal/lysosomal Adaptor, MAPK and MTOR Activator 2):

The product of this gene is highly conserved with a mouse protein associated with the cytoplasmic face of late endosomes and lysosomes. The mouse protein interacts with MAPK scaffold protein 1, a component of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. In humans, a mutation in this gene has been associated with a primary immunodeficiency syndrome, and suggests a role for this protein in...   更多...
此分类里的别的抗原:
MAPKSP1 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 1 Interacting Protein 1): MAPKSP1 抗体 MAPKSP1 ELISA试剂盒 MAPKSP1 蛋白
PITRM1 (Pitrilysin Metallopeptidase 1): PITRM1 抗体   PITRM1 蛋白
PPP1R2 (Protein Phosphatase 1, Regulatory (Inhibitor) Subunit 2): PPP1R2 抗体 PPP1R2 ELISA试剂盒