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Microtubule Dynamics

微管是高动态的结构性、功能性胞内高速公路。细胞骨架这一术语使人联想到的画面是一种刚性的、不可改变的永久性结构。实际上,细胞骨架是一个极具活力的互联网络,它由三种不同的主要成分组成:微管(聚合微管蛋白二聚体)、微丝(聚合肌动蛋白)和中间纤维。其中,微管是最大的细胞骨架成分。它们几乎在每一个细胞过程中都发挥着作用。 它们赋予原本无定形的细胞以结构稳定性和形态。它们也是一个相互联通的、胞内“高速公路”的主要成分,通过这一“高速公路”,各种细胞携带物可经由分子马达蛋白构成的繁忙网络来往穿梭。在有丝分裂过程中, 针对两个有丝分裂纺锤体之一的微管收缩为细胞分裂提供了必要的动力。

细胞微环境不断变化的性质就要求具备适应能力,尤其是在发育过程中。微管等细胞骨架成分凭借其聚合结构促进了这种适应能力的形成。微管的基本单位是由一个α微管蛋白亚基及一个相应β微管蛋白亚基构成的微管蛋白二聚体。这些二聚体聚合形成约24nm宽的中空管状结构。未经修饰微管蛋白的自然状态是不断变化的,其聚合和解聚速率几乎相等。

诸如Rac和Rho等几种常见的GTP酶家族,通过促进微管蛋白二聚体的GDP/GTP交换,间接推动了微管组装。其他微管稳定剂则采取了更为直接的方法。微管相关蛋白如MAP1、MAP2、MAP4或MAPtau会与聚合微管结合,稳定其聚合形式,从而促进组装和微管生长。大多数MAPs是通过磷酸化激活的,而MAPK (map激酶)磷酸化级联反应又为微管组装的过程加入了一个额外的控制层。相反,细胞却可以通过多种方式来调节微管解聚。促进解聚的直接方式包括多种成分,比如通过与α/β微管蛋白二聚体结合从而防止其聚合的Stathmin蛋白。微管切割酶如剑蛋白能够在其结构中间切断微管,而驱动蛋白I的家族成员如KIF2则会随微管移动,使其“磨损”并解聚。

Microtubule-associated proteins

CLASP1 (Cytoplasmic Linker Associated Protein 1):

CLASPs, such as CLASP1, are nonmotor microtubule-associated proteins that interact with CLIPs (e.g., CLIP170\; MIM 179838). CLASP1 is involved in the regulation of microtubule dynamics at the kinetochore and throughout the spindle (Maiato et al., 2003 [PubMed 12837247]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008].   更多...

MAPT (Microtubule-Associated Protein tau):

This gene encodes the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) whose transcript undergoes complex, regulated alternative splicing, giving rise to several mRNA species. MAPT transcripts are differentially expressed in the nervous system, depending on stage of neuronal maturation and neuron type. MAPT gene mutations have been associated with several neurodegenerative disorders such as...   更多...
此分类里的别的抗原:
CLIP1 (CAP-GLY Domain Containing Linker Protein 1): CLIP1 抗体 CLIP1 ELISA试剂盒  
CLIP2 (CAP-GLY Domain Containing Linker Protein 2): CLIP2 抗体 CLIP2 ELISA试剂盒 CLIP2 蛋白
CLASP2 (Cytoplasmic Linker Associated Protein 2): CLASP2 抗体 CLASP2 ELISA试剂盒 CLASP2 蛋白
MAP1A (Microtubule-Associated Protein 1A): MAP1A 抗体 MAP1A ELISA试剂盒 MAP1A 蛋白
MAP1B (Microtubule-Associated Protein 1B): MAP1B 抗体 MAP1B ELISA试剂盒 MAP1B 蛋白
MAP4 (Microtubule-Associated Protein 4): MAP4 抗体 MAP4 ELISA试剂盒 MAP4 蛋白

Tubulins

Tuba1a - TUBA1A

Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha-chain.   更多...

TUBB (Tubulin, beta):

beta 5-tubulin\; polymerizes to form microtubules\; member of a family of structural proteins [RGD, Feb 2006].   更多...

TUBA4A (Tubulin, alpha 4a):

Microtubules of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton perform essential and diverse functions and are composed of a heterodimer of alpha and beta tubulin. The genes encoding these microtubule constituents are part of the tubulin superfamily, which is composed of six distinct families. Genes from the alpha, beta and gamma tubulin families are found in all eukaryotes. The alpha and beta tubulins represent...   更多...

TUBE1 (Tubulin, epsilon 1):

This gene encodes a member of the tubulin superfamily. This protein localizes to the centriolar sub-distal appendages that are associated with the older of the two centrioles after centrosome duplication. This protein plays a central role in organization of the microtubules during centriole duplication. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 5.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009].   更多...
此分类里的别的抗原:
TUBA1 - alpha Tubulin: TUBA1 抗体    
LOC732582 - Tubulin A: LOC732582 抗体    
TUBA1B (Tubulin, alpha 1B): TUBA1B 抗体 TUBA1B ELISA试剂盒 TUBA1B 蛋白
TUBA1C (Tubulin, alpha 1c): TUBA1C 抗体 TUBA1C ELISA试剂盒 TUBA1C 蛋白
TUBA3E (Tubulin, alpha 3e): TUBA3E 抗体   TUBA3E 蛋白
TUBA8 (Tubulin, alpha 8): TUBA8 抗体 TUBA8 ELISA试剂盒 TUBA8 蛋白
TUBA3C (Tubulin, Alpha, 3C): TUBA3C 抗体 TUBA3C ELISA试剂盒 TUBA3C 蛋白
TUBB1 (Tubulin, beta 1): TUBB1 抗体 TUBB1 ELISA试剂盒 TUBB1 蛋白
TUBB2A (Tubulin, beta 2A): TUBB2A 抗体 TUBB2A ELISA试剂盒 TUBB2A 蛋白
TUBB2B (Tubulin, beta 2B): TUBB2B 抗体 TUBB2B ELISA试剂盒 TUBB2B 蛋白
TUBb6 (Tubulin, beta 6): TUBb6 抗体 TUBb6 ELISA试剂盒 TUBb6 蛋白
TUBB2C (Tubulin, Beta, 2C): TUBB2C 抗体 TUBB2C ELISA试剂盒 TUBB2C 蛋白
TUBB3 (Tubulin, Beta, 3): TUBB3 抗体 TUBB3 ELISA试剂盒 TUBB3 蛋白
TUBB5 (Tubulin, Beta, 5): TUBB5 抗体 TUBB5 ELISA试剂盒 TUBB5 蛋白
TUBD1 (Tubulin, delta 1): TUBD1 抗体 TUBD1 ELISA试剂盒 TUBD1 蛋白
TUBG1 (Tubulin, gamma 1): TUBG1 抗体 TUBG1 ELISA试剂盒 TUBG1 蛋白
TUBG2 (Tubulin, gamma 2): TUBG2 抗体 TUBG2 ELISA试剂盒 TUBG2 蛋白

Stabilization assembly

CLIP1 (CAP-GLY Domain Containing Linker Protein 1):

The protein encoded by this gene links endocytic vesicles to microtubules. This gene is highly expressed in Reed-Sternberg cells of Hodgkin disease. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011].   更多...

CDC42 (Cell Division Cycle 42 (GTP Binding Protein, 25kDa)):

The protein encoded by this gene is a small GTPase of the Rho-subfamily, which regulates signaling pathways that control diverse cellular functions including cell morphology, migration, endocytosis and cell cycle progression. This protein is highly similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc 42, and is able to complement the yeast cdc42-1 mutant. The product of oncogene Dbl was reported to...   更多...

CLASP1 (Cytoplasmic Linker Associated Protein 1):

CLASPs, such as CLASP1, are nonmotor microtubule-associated proteins that interact with CLIPs (e.g., CLIP170\; MIM 179838). CLASP1 is involved in the regulation of microtubule dynamics at the kinetochore and throughout the spindle (Maiato et al., 2003 [PubMed 12837247]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008].   更多...
此分类里的别的抗原:
CLIP2 (CAP-GLY Domain Containing Linker Protein 2): CLIP2 抗体 CLIP2 ELISA试剂盒 CLIP2 蛋白
CLASP2 (Cytoplasmic Linker Associated Protein 2): CLASP2 抗体 CLASP2 ELISA试剂盒 CLASP2 蛋白
MAP1A (Microtubule-Associated Protein 1A): MAP1A 抗体 MAP1A ELISA试剂盒 MAP1A 蛋白
MAP1B (Microtubule-Associated Protein 1B): MAP1B 抗体 MAP1B ELISA试剂盒 MAP1B 蛋白
MAP4 (Microtubule-Associated Protein 4): MAP4 抗体 MAP4 ELISA试剂盒 MAP4 蛋白
MAPT (Microtubule-Associated Protein tau): MAPT 抗体 MAPT ELISA试剂盒 MAPT 蛋白
RHOA (Ras Homolog Gene Family, Member A): RHOA 抗体 RHOA ELISA试剂盒 RHOA 蛋白
ROCK1 (rho-Associated, Coiled-Coil Containing Protein Kinase 1): ROCK1 抗体 ROCK1 ELISA试剂盒 ROCK1 蛋白
ROCK2 (rho-Associated, Coiled-Coil Containing Protein Kinase 2): ROCK2 抗体 ROCK2 ELISA试剂盒 ROCK2 蛋白

Destabilization assembly

FIGNL1 (Fidgetin-Like 1):

May regulate osteoblast proliferation and differentiation (By similarity).   更多...

KIF2C (Kinesin Family Member 2C):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of kinesin-like protein family. Proteins of this family are microtubule-dependent molecular motors that transport organelles within cells and move chromosomes during cell division. This protein is important for anaphase chromosome segregation and may be required to coordinate the onset of sister centromere separation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008].   更多...

vps4b - VPS4B

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the AAA protein family (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities), and is the homolog of the yeast Vps4 protein. In humans, two paralogs of the yeast protein have been identified. The former share a high degree of aa sequence similarity with each other, and also with yeast Vps4 and mouse Skd1 proteins. Mouse Skd1 (suppressor of K+...   更多...
此分类里的别的抗原:
EML2 (Echinoderm Microtubule Associated Protein Like 2): EML2 抗体 EML2 ELISA试剂盒 EML2 蛋白
KATNA1 (Katanin P60 (ATPase Containing) Subunit A 1): KATNA1 抗体 KATNA1 ELISA试剂盒 KATNA1 蛋白
KATNB1 (Katanin P80 (WD Repeat Containing) Subunit B 1): KATNB1 抗体 KATNB1 ELISA试剂盒 KATNB1 蛋白
KIF2B (Kinesin Family Member 2B): KIF2B 抗体 KIF2B ELISA试剂盒 KIF2B 蛋白
KIF2A - Kinesin Heavy Chain Member 2A: KIF2A 抗体 KIF2A ELISA试剂盒 KIF2A 蛋白
SPAST - Spastin: SPAST 抗体 SPAST ELISA试剂盒 SPAST 蛋白
STMN1 - Stathmin 1: STMN1 抗体 STMN1 ELISA试剂盒 STMN1 蛋白
VPS4A (Vacuolar Protein Sorting 4 Homolog A (S. Cerevisiae)): VPS4A 抗体 VPS4A ELISA试剂盒 VPS4A 蛋白